Acknowledgements

Donors

The activities of the European Biodiversity Assessments are funded by the European Commission. The Amphibian and Reptile assessment received support from the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) for an evaluation workshop. Support for the butterfly workshop was kindly provided by the Bayerische Akademie für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege. The Biofresh Project supported the writing of the Freshwater Fishes publication. The workshop on Saproxylic Beetles was supported by the Ministry of the Environment of Finland and the workshop on Crop Wild Relatives was funded by Cascais Natura and Cascais City Council. The Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Environment and Water and Vilda Nature Photography contributed to the European Mammal Assessment.

Conservation partners

The European Biodiversity Assessments are carried out in collaborattion with numerous individuals and organizations.

It receives extensive expert advice and assistance from the IUCN Species Survival Commission and IUCN Specialist Groups: IUCN SSC Arctic Plant Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Bison Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Butterfly Red List Authority, IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Cetacean Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Chiroptera Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Conifer Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Crop Wild Relative Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Deer Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Dragonfly Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Freshwater Fishes Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Lagomorph Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Macaronesian Island Plant Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Mediterranean Island Plant Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Mollusc Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Orchid Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Otter Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Salmon Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Small Carnivore Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Sturgeon Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Wolf Specialist Group, IUCN SSC Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe Working Group.

Amongst its partners are: Biofresh; Butterfly Conservation Europe; Conservation International, the CI Centre for Applied Biodiversity Science; European Invertebrate Survey; Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern and University of Birmingham.

Conservation scientists

Assessing species for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and the European Red List relies on the willingness of scientists to contribute and pool their collective knowledge in order to produce the most reliable estimates regarding the status of species. Their enthusiasm and commitment has enabled us to generate a comprehensive and detailed picture of the European region. Asking for forgiveness from anyone whose name is inadvertently omitted or misspelled:

Amphibians and Reptiles: Aram Agasyan, Rastko Ajtic, Ferdi Akarsu, Natalia Ananjeva, Steven Anderson, Claes Andrén, Franco Andreone, Brandon Anthony, Jan Willem Arntzen, Oscar Arribas, Aziz Avci, Wiesiek Babik, Sherif Baha El Din, Ibrahim Baran, Trevor Beebee, Peter Beerli, Pedro Beja, Wolfgang Böhme, Bartosz Borczyk, Jaime Bosch, Salvador Carranza, Marc Cheylan, Dan Cogalniceanu, Claudia Corti, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Pierre-André Crochet, Cornelius C. De Haan, Gad Degani, Giovanni Delfino, Mathieu Denoël, Arvin Diesmos, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, David Donaire-Barroso, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Paul Edgar, El Hassan El Mouden, Eldad Elron, Sarig Gafny, Mario García-París, Trent Garner, Avital Gasith, Philippe Geniez, Filippo Giachi, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Richard Griffiths, Patrick Haffner, Shi Haitao, Geoffrey Hammerson, Idriz Haxhiu, Blair Hedges, Kim Howell, Souad Hraoui-Bloquet, Gu Huiqing, Sixto Inchaustegui, Vladimir Ishchenko, Djoko Iskandar, Robert Jehle, Dušan Jelić, Ulrich Joger, Rafael Joglar, Yakup Kaska, Uğur Kaya, Muhammad Sharif Khan, István Kiss, Tibor Kovács, László Krecsák, Lue Kuangyang, Yusuf Kumlutaş, Sergius Kuzmin, Martin Kyek, Roberta Lecis, Miguel Lizana, Jon Loman, Petros Lymberakis, Rafael Marquez, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Jose Antonio Mateo Miras, Masafumi Matsui, Marco Mattoccia, John Measey, Andreas Meyer, Claude Miaud, Leslie Minter, Hans Konrad Nettmann, Göran Nilson, M. Saïd Nouira, Herman Núñez, Per Nyström, Maria Ogielska, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Nikolai Orlov, Carmen Diaz Paniagua, Theodore Papenfuss, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Richard Podloucky, Miklós Puky, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Antonio Romano, Riyad Sadek, Alfredo Salvador, Georgina Santos-Barrera, Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valerio Sbordoni, Robert Schabetsberger, Benedikt Schmidt, Joan Mayol Serra, Murat Sevinç, Mozafar Sharifi, Tahar Slimani, Roberto Sindaco, Max Sparreboom, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Matthias Stöck, David Tarkhnishvili, Miguel Tejedo, Richard Tinsley, Varol Tok, Ljiljana Tomović, Boris Tuniyev, Sako Tuniyev, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Nazan Üzüm, Thomas Uzzell, Peter Paul van Dijk, Stefano Vanni, Alberto Veloso, Milan Vogrin, Judit Vörös, Chou Wenhao, Yehudah Werner, Alexander Westerström, John Wilkinson and Can Yeniyurt.

Butterflies: Eyjolf Aistleitner, Emilio Balletto, Jiří Beneš, Stoyan Beshkov, Simona Bonelli, Gilles Carron, Louis Cassar, Sue Collins, Garry Curtis, Jordi Dantart, Dalius Dapkus, Alexey Devyatkin, Marta Domènech Ferrés, Goran Dusej, Cécile Edelist, Violaine Fichefet, Patricia Garcia Pereira, Enrique García-Barros, Helmut Höttinger, Predrag Jakšić, Eddie John, Henrik Kalivoda, Evrim Karaçetin, Michael Kavin, Pavel Kepka, Martin Konvicka, Ádám Kőrösi, Anatolij Kulak, Miroslav Kulfan, Jasko Kullberg, Alexey L. Devyatkin, Suvad Lelo, Miguel López Munguira, Dirk Maes, Luc Manil, Ernestino Maravalhas, Marc Meyer, Branko Micevski, Sergiu Mihut, Yeray Monasterio, David Nash, Erling Olafsson, Lars Ove Hansen, Kelly Papapavlou, Dario Patricelli, Sergey Popov, Helena Roma, Nils Ryrholm, Martina Šašić, Nikolaj Savenkov, Josef Settele, Marcin Sielezniew, Christian Steel, Constantí Stefanescu, Christian Stettmer, Giedrius Svitra, Safian Szabolcs, Toomas Tammaru, Chris van Swaay, Rudi Verovnik, Theo Verstrael, Martin Warren, Martin Wiemers and Irma Wynhoff.

Dragonflies and Damselflies: Rafał Bernard, Jean-Pierre Boudot, Klaus-Jürgen Conze, Geert De Knijf, Elena Dyatlova, Sónia Ferreira, Miloš Jović, Vincent Kalkman, Jürgen Ott, Elisa Riservato and Göran Sahlén.

Freshwater Fishes: Arlati, G., Arshad, U., Atkinson, S., Barbieri, R., Beens, K., Beresford, A., Bianco, P.G., Bin, Z., Bogutskaya, N., Bohlen, J., Bronzi,P., Brooks, E., Carmona, J., Cealich, E., Chang, J., Chebanov, M., Chenery, A., Collen, B., Congiu, L., Crivelli, A.J., Darwall, W., Devi, R., Devrim, M., Doadrio, I., Doukakais, P., Du, H., Elvira, B., Erk’akan, F., Gadich, E., Gesner, J., Halkett, G., Hammerson, G., Haxton, T., Hilton, E., Karaji, A., Karatash, A., Ludwig, A., Lukey, J.R., Mrakovcic, M., Mugue, N., Munroe, T.A., Nagshi, S.S., Norouzi, M., Noyon, M., Pikitch, E., Pourkazemi, M., Povz, M., Qiwei, W., Rad, S.S., Ram, M., Richman, N., Rochard, E., Rosenthal, H., Rossir, R., Ruban, G., Schreier, A.D., Shakourian, M., Shariat, F., Skopets, M., Smith, K., Suciu, R., Switzer, D., Taati, R., Tajan, M.N., Van Tassell, J.L., Wanzenböck, J., Wickström, H., Williot, P, Zerunian, S. and Zhang, H.

Non-marine Molluscs: Cristina Abreu, Christian Albrecht, David Aldridge, Maria Alonso, Rosario Alonso, Rafael Araujo, Beatriz Arconada, Jose Ramon Arrebola Burgos, Ruud Bank, Jean-Michel Bichain, Michel Bichain, Helena Bilandzija, Marco Bodon, Philippe Bouchet, Robert Cameron, Maryvonne Charrier, Simone Cianfanelli, Simone Cianfanelli, Olivia Cioboiu, Brian Coles, Barry Colville, António Manuel de Frias Martin, Zoltán Erõss, Gerhard Falkner, Margrit Falkner, Andrezj Falniowski, Zoltan Feher, Olivier Gargominy, Dimitri Georgiev, Dilian Georgiev, Lefteris Giotis, Folco Giusti, Peter Glöer, Benjamín Gómez-Moliner, Klaus Groh, Martin Haase, Alessandro Hallgass, Torsten Hauffe, Branko Jalzic, Ümit Kebapçı, Ian Killeen, Jasna Lajtner, Giuseppe Manganelli, Alberto Martínez-Ortí (Univ. Valencia), Alex Menez, Evelyn Moorkens, Eike Neubert, Hans-Jörg Niederhöfer, Barna Páll-Gergely, Vladimir Pešić, Vincent Prie, Biljana Rađa, Kanella Radea, Marian Ramos, Claire Regnier, Alexander Reischütz, Peter Reischütz, Emilio Rolan, Jörg Rüetschi, Kirsten Schreiber, Mary Seddon, Roberto Sinaco, Boris Sket, Rajko Slapnik, Peter Solymos, Mikhail Son, Vesna Stamol, Peter Subai, Jelena Tomovic, Konstantinos Triantis, Dirk Van Damme, Katerina Vardinoyannis, Lubomira Vavrova, Maxim Vinarksi, Jackie von Goetham and Ted von Proschwitz.

Mammals: Jon Aars, Alexei Abramov, Ingemar Ahlén, Juan Tomás Alcalde, Gaetano Aloise, Aybars Altiparmak, Paolo Alves, Giovanni Amori, Zuhair Amr, Zanete Andersone-Lilley, F.M. Angelici, Stephane Aulagnier, Linas Balciauskas, F. Ballesteros, Inês Barroso, S.E. Belikov, Petr Benda, Claude Berducou, Sandro Bertolino, Francois Biollaz, E. Boltunov, Peter Boye, Christine Breitenmoser, Urs Breitenmoser, Thomas Butynski, Maria João Cabral, Paulo Carmo, Paulo Cavallini, Jim Conroy, Justin Cooke, Ioan Coroiu, John Cortes, Thomas Cucchi, Hans de Iongh, Miguel Delibes de Castro, Andrew Derocher, Greg Donovan, Nina Eide, John Fa, Yordan Spasov Koshev, Kit Kovacs, Hubert Kraettli, Andreas Kranz, Malgorzata Krasinska, Z.A. Krasinski, Sergei Kruskop, Boris Kryštufek, Arild Landa, Roland Libois, John Linnell, Sandro Lovari, Irakli Macharashvili, Tiit Maran, Ferdia Marnell, Natália Martínková, Holger Meinig, Yorgos Mertzanis, Tony Mitchell-Jones, António Mira, Gisela Moço, T. Murakami, Dumitru Murariu, Zoltan Nagy, Valery Neronov, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Claude Novoa, Wanda Olech, Agnieszka Olszanska, Fernando Palacios, Jorge Palmeirim, Luis Javier Palomo Muñoz, Jesús M. Pérez, Kajetan Perzanowski, Valdis Pilats, Virginia Pimenta, Ricardo Pita, Zdzislaw Pucek, Margarida Fernandes, Nikolai Formozov, Helder Freitas, Wolfgang Frey, Joanna Furmankiewicz, Giorgos Giannatos, Julio Gisbert de la Puente, Zbigniew Glowacinski, Aleksandra Gondek, Werner Haberl, Eleftherios Hadjisterkotis, Duncan Halley, Phil Hammond, Ilpo Hanski, Meredith Happold, Eero Helle, Martin Hellicar, Miklos Heltai, Helmut Hemmer, Heikki Henttonen, Juan Herrero Cortes, Mathias Herrmann, Pall Hersteinsson, Maria Elisa Hobbelink, Mike Hoffmann, Djuro Huber, Tony Hutson, Rainer Hutterer, Kjell Isaksen, Tom Jeffersen, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Javier Juste, John Atle Kålås, Ahmet Karatash, Alexander Kashtalian, Kaarina Kauhala, Andrew Kitchener, Dieter Kock, Bernardino Ragni, Ana Rainho, Maria João Ramos, Ettore Randi, F. Riga, Luisa Rodrigues, Sugoto Roy, Danilo Russo, Patricia Salgueiro, Cristina San Jose, Mozafar Sharifi, Boris Sheftel, Georgy Shenbrot, Claudio Sillero, Andrew Smith, Bjarne Søgaard, Friederike Spitzenberger, Michael Stubbe, Andrey Subbotin, Per Ole Syvertsen, Alexei Tikhonov, V. Trocchi, Katerina Tsytsulina, Jeroen van der Kooij, Els van Lavieren, Iosu Alfaro Vergarachea, Vladimir Vohralik, Manuela von Arx, Dan Ward, Sian Waters, Marc Webber, Øystein Wiig, Chris Wozencraft, Igor Zagorodnyuk, Jan Zima and Diana Zlatanova.

Saproxylic Beetles: Oleg Aleksandrowicz, Keith Alexander, Paolo Audisio, Pablo Bahillo, Andres Baselga, Rostislav Bekchiev, Christophe Bouget, Hervé Brustel, Boris Büche, Jörn Buse, Alejandro Campanaro, Karel Chobot, Juan Jesús de la Rosa, Julien Delnatte, Benoit Dodelin, Danail Doychev, Raoul Gerend, Borislav Guéorguiev, José Manuel Grosso-Silva, Jakub Horák, Boris Hrasovec, Esko Hyvärinen, Petru Istrate, Nicklas Jansson, Maja Jurc, Luka Katušić, Frank Köhler, Anastasios Legakis, Suvad Lelo, Christodoulos Makris, Ilpo Mannerkoski, Petri Martikainen, Ole Martin, Franco Mason, Marcos Méndez, Otto Merkl, Estefanía Micó Balaguer, Jorg Muller, Natalia Munteanu, Gianluca Nardi, Eugen Nitzu, Frode Ødegaard, Andrzej Oleksa, Tomáš Olšovský, Carlos Otero, Jan Pedersen, Vladimir Pesic, Panos Petrakis, Roger Pettersson, Elina Peuhu, Natasa Pil, Alexander Putchkov, José-Ignacio Recalde Irurzun, Jolanta Rimsaite, Jiri Schlaghamersky, Jürgen Schmidl, Koen Smets, Patrícia Soares-Vieira, Eva Sprecher-Uebersax, Jogeir Stokland, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Dimitry Telnov, Serdar Tezcan, Philip Francis Thomsen, Piotr Tykarski, Antonio Verdugo, Amador Viñolas, Alekseev Vitaly, Eduard Vives, Kaljo Voolma, Agnes Vozar and Petr Zabransky.

Vascular Plants: Thomas Abeli, Aurelio Acevedo Rodríguez, Carlos Aguiar, Aulikki Alanen, Antun Alegro, Alessandro Alessandrini, Paulo Alves, Maria Ansaldi, Mora Aronsson, Pier Virgilio Arrigoni, Åsmund Asdal, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Stefano Bacci, Steven Bachman, Simonetta Bagella, Ángel Bañares Baudet, Giuseppina Barberis, Francisco Barreto Caldas, Ioannis Bazos, Gianni Bedini, Erwin Bergmeier, Regina Berjano Pérez, A. Bernardello, Karl-Georg Bernhardt, Alessio Bertolli, Gabriel Blanca, Emanuele Bocchieri, Éva Bőhm, Mauro Bovio, Ferdinando Branca, John Bruinsma, Gabriela Buffa, Zofia Bulińska, Stéphane Buord, Baltasar Cabezudo Artero, Maria do Carmo Tavares, Eduardo Carqué Álamo, Angelino Carta, Robert Caruana, José Augusto Carvalho, Miguel Carvalho, Charalambos S. Christodoulou, D. Cobo, Manuel B. Crespo, Gilberto M. Cruz Trujillo, Aaron P. Davis, Pinelopi Delipetrou, A. Della, Eduardo Manuel Ferreira Dias, Elisabeth Dodinet, Gianniantonio Domina, Domizia Donnini, Alena Dostalova, David Draper, Maria Cristina Duarte, Ehsan Dulloo, Garifalia Economou, Pavol Eliás, Stefan Ericsson, Aljos Farjon, Mike Fay, Giuseppe Fenu, Viera Feráková, Francisco Fernandes, Bruno Foggi, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Lothar Frese, Ewan Gage, Fabio Garbari, Antonio García Gallo, Pablo Garcia Murillo, Domenico Gargano, Rodolfo Gentili, Király Gergely, Lorenzo Gianguzzi, Guillaume Gigot, Ricardo González González, Thomas Gregor, Patrick Grillas, Jaime Güemes, Andreas Gygax, Andreas Ch. Hadjichambis, Thomas Hadjikyriakou, Iva Hodálová, Vojtech Holubec, Zdenka Hroudova, Laetitia Hugot, Irina Illarionova, José Iriondo, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Nejc Jogan, Nicolas Juillet, C. Kailis, Zdenek Kaplan, Andreas Katsiosis, Shelagh Kell, Eija Kemppainen, Chris Kik, Michael Kleih, Helena Korpelainen, Gregor Koslowski, Hörður Kristinsson, Angelos Kyratzis, Thomas Kyriacou, Juozas Labokas, Richard Lansdown, Cesare Lasen, Danna Leaman, Joana Magos Brehm, Federico Mangili, Rossella Marcucci, Karol Marhold, Manuel V. Marrero Gómez, Águedo Marrero Rodríguez, Stefano Marsili, Katia Martín Cáceres, Victoria Eugenia Martín Osorio, Oleg Maslovky, Efisio Mattana, Nigel Maxted, Leopoldo Medina, Viktor Melnyk, Pavol Mereďa, Ricardo Mesa Coello, Zbigniew Mirek, Justin Moat, Chiara Montagnani, Bertrand de Montmollin, Juan Carlos Moreno Saiz, Juan Francisco Mota Poveda, José Naranjo Suárez, Patricia Navas, Valeria Negri, Baudewijn Odé, Santiago Ortiz, María Ángeles Ortiz Herrera, Joe Osborne, Päivi Paalamo, Ángel Palomares Martínez, Constantinos Papasavvas, Demetra Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Julio Pastor, Simonetta Peccenini, Julio Peñas, Andrés Vicente Pérez Latorre, Lorenzo Peruzzi, Antoaneta Petrova, Danka Petrović, Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa, Livio Poldini, Cristiano Pontecorvo, Miguel Porto, Gert Poulsen, Filippo Prosser, Hassan Rankou, Valerijus Rašomavičius, Jorge Alfredo Reyes Betancort, Tim Rich, Gabriele Rinaldi, Octavio Rodríguez Delgado, Graziano Rossi, Fred Rumsey, Terhi Ryttäri, Per Harald Salvesen, Isabel Santana López, Annalisa Santangelo, Arnoldo Santos Guerra, Hanno Schaefer, Stephan Scholz, Tamara Smekalova, Dubravka Soljan, Heidi Solstad, Jitka Stepankova, Vladimir Stevanović, Darrin Stevens, Silvia Strajeru, Salvador Talavera Lozano, François Tapia, Philip Thomas, Anna Trias Blasi, Alessandro Tribulato, Angelo Troia, Takis Tsintides, Dana Turonova, Katya Uzundzhalieva, Clara de Vega Durán, Åslaug Viken, Rudolf Vögel, Gabor Vörösváry, Kevin Walker, Klaus van de Weyer, Thomas Wilhalm, Paul Wilkin, Tim Wilkins, Philip Wilson, Peter Wind, Elena Zappa and Dimitri Zubov.