Prolemur simus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Prolemur simus
Species Authority: (Gray, 1871)
Common Name(s):
English Greater Bamboo Lemur, Broad-nosed Gentle Lemur
French Grand Hapalémur, Hapalémur Simien
Spanish Lemur Cariancho
Synonym(s):
Hapalemur simus Gray, 1871
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly included in Hapalemur, but included in Prolemur by Groves (2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:
There is a suspected population reduction of 80% or more in this species over a three generation period (estimating the generation length to be 9 years). This time period includes both the past and the future. Causes of this reduction (which have not ceased) include observed, inferred and predicted continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, mining, the cutting of bamboo, and decline in the number of mature individuals through unsustainable levels of hunting. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.
History:
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Subfossil remains confirm that this species once had a widespread distribution in Madagascar that covered the northern, north-western, central and eastern portions of Madagascar, including Ampasambazimba in the Itasy Basin (west of Antananarivo), the Grotte d'Andrafiabe on the Ankarana Massif, and the Grottes d'Anjohibe near Mahajanga and Tsingy de Bemaraha (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Until recently the species was thought to have a much diminished range, in and near the south-eastern rainforests of Madagascar (Mutschler and Tan 2003). Recent range extensions based on confirmed sightings illustrate that the present-day range is not as diminished as previously though (Dolch et al. 2008, King and Chamberlan 2010, Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Rakotonirina et al. 2011b), and indirect evidence suggests the species may still be widely distributed through much of eastern Madagascar (Dolch et al. 2010, Rakotonirina et al. 2011a, 2011b). The latitudinal range of sites with confirmed sightings as of July 2012 is 18°06’S (near Didy in the Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor; The Aspinall Foundation, unpubl. data) to 22°26’S (near Karianga, north of Vondrozo; Johnson and Wyner 2000; Wright et al. 2008). The elevation range for confirmed sightings is 20 (Bonaventure et al. 2012) to 1,600 m (Goodman et al. 2001 in Wright et al. 2008). Confirmed sightings have been made in recent years in the remaining mid to high altitude rainforest corridors from Didy to Andasibe (Dolch et al. 2008, Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Randrianarimanana et al. 2012, Olson et al. in press) and from the Ranomafana National Park to the Andringitra National Park (Petter et al. 1977, Wright et al. 2008, Delmore et al. 2009), and in lowland degraded landscapes in the Brickaville District (Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012), the Vatomandry District (Rakotonirina et al. 2011b), at the confluence of the Mangoro and Nosivolo rivers in the Mahanoro District (Rakotonirina et al. 2011b, Z.A. Andrianandrasana unpublished reports), around Kianjavato in the Mananjary District (Andriaholinirina et al. 2003, Wright et al. 2008, McGuire et al. 2009), and near Karianga in the Vondrozo District (Wright et al. 2008, 2009).

Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Although until recently thought to have a population size totalling less than 200 individuals (Wright et al. 2009), recent work has illustrated that many sites were previously overlooked, and even at several known sites the population sizes were underestimated. Currently over 500 individuals are known in the wild, from approximately 11 subpopulations, but none of these subpopulations appear to exceed 250 mature individuals (Dolch et al. 2008, McGuire et al. 2009, Wright et al. 2009, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012, Randrianarimanana et al. 2012, H.N.T. Randriahaingo unpubl. reports). Several other sites with indirect evidence for presence have not yet any direct observations for estimating population sizes. There is no good information available on current population trend, but it is likely to be decreasing due to habitat destruction and hunting – there is some evidence for localised extinctions (e.g. Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011).

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This species is associated with habitats containing large-culmmed bamboo, particularly Cathariostachys madagascariensis in mid to high altitude rainforest sites (Tan 1999, 2000; Dolch et al. 2008; Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011; Randrianarimanana et al. 2012) and Valiha diffusa and Bambusa vulgaris in lowland secondary habitats (Ravaloharimanitra et al. 2011, Rakotonirina et al. 2011b, Bonaventure et al. 2012, Lantovololona et al. 2012, Mihaminekena et al. 2012). In Ranomafana National Park, the bamboo Cathariostachys madagascariensis can account for as much as 95% of the diet, with shoots, young and mature leaves, and pith being consumed (Tan 1999, 2000). The patchiness of this bamboo species may be one factor limiting the current distribution and population continuity of P. simus, as this key food species is not found in all forest microhabitats, and is apparently limited to forest near large rivers. The availability of drinking water could also be a limiting factor, as during dry months in Ranomafana National Park, P. simus was the only lemur species seen regularly coming to streams to drink water (Wright et al. 2008).

Observations of wild populations and animals in captivity suggest that this species is cathemeral, active both during the day and at night throughout the year. They live in polygamous groups that can occupy home ranges of 40-60 ha or more. Mating begins in May or June, with infants typically born in October and November. Females usually give birth to a single young each year, after a gestation period of approximately 150 days. (Mittermeier et al. 2010, and references therein). Sexual maturity occurs at around two years. Individuals have lived over 17 years in captivity.


Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food, using slingshots, spears, and snares (Wright et al. 2008).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The Greater Bamboo Lemur is threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, mining, the cutting of bamboo, and hunting with slingshots and snares, the latter exacerbated by their movements into the rice paddies. This is the most commonly hunted lemur species in the south. 


 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species has also been on the list of the World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, prepared every two years by the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, the International Primatological Society, and Conservation International, since 2002. Remnant populations now receive protection in Ranomafana National Park and Andringitra National Park. Torotorofotsy is also a RAMSAR wetland site. A recent assessment of the species (Wright et al. 2008, 2009) has shown that the species only occurs at 12 sites and now occupies only 1-4 % of its former range. However, it is quite possible that future field surveys will turn up additional populations, as in the case of the Torotorofotsy population. As of 2009, there were 15 individuals in six European collections, along with four in Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (ISIS 2009, E. E. Louis Jr. pers.obs.).

Bibliography [top]

Bonaventure, A., Lantovololona, F., Mihaminekena, T. H., Andrianandrasana, Z. A., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ranaivosoa, P., Ratsimbazafy, J. & King, T. 2012. Conservation de Prolemur simus dans le site de basse altitude de Vohiposa, District de Brickaville. Lemur News 16: 15-20.

Delmore, K.E.; M.F. Keller; E.E. Louis Jr.; S.E. Johnson. 2009. Rapid primatological surveys of the Andringitra forest corridors: direct observation of the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus). . Lemur News 14: 49-52.

Dolch, R., J. L. Fiely, J-N Ndriamiary, J. Rafalimandimby, R. Randriamampionona, S. E. Engberg, & E. E. Louis Jr. 2008. Confirmation of the greater bamboo lemur, Prolemur simus, north of the Torotorofotsy wetlands, eastern Madagascar. Lemur News 13: 14-17.

Dolch R, Patel ER, Ratsimbazafy J, Golden CD, Ratolojanahary T, Rafalimandimby J, Fiely JL. 2010. Distribution of Prolemur simus north of the Mangoro-Nosivolo river – how far north do we really have to look? . Lemur News 15: 32-34.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

King, T. & Chamberlan, C. 2010. Conserving the Critically Endangered greater bamboo lemur. Oryx 44(2): 167.

Lantovololona, F., Bonaventure, A., Ratolojanahary, T., Rafalimandimby, J., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ranaivosoa, P., Ratsimbazafy, J., Dolch, R. & King, T. 2012. Conservation de Prolemur simus autour de la forêt de basse altitude d’Andriantantely, District de Brickaville. Lemur News 16: 7-11.

McGuire, S.M.; C.A. Bailey; J.-N. Rakotonirina; L.G. Razanajatovo; J.F. Ranaivoarisoa; L.M. Kimmel; E.E. Louis Jr. 2009. Population survey of the Greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) at Kianjavato Classified Forest. Lemur News 14: 41-43.

Mihaminekena, T. H., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ranaivosoa, P., Ratsimbazafy, J. & King, T. 2012. Abondance et conservation de Prolemur simus dans les sites de basse altitude de Sahavola et Ambalafary, District de Brickaville. Lemur News 16: 11-16.

Mittermeier, R.A., Louis Jr., E.E., Richardson, M., Schwitzer, C., Langrand, O., Rylands, A.B., Hawkins, F., Rajaobelina, S., Ratsimbazafy, J., Rasoloarison, R., Roos, C., Kappeler, P.M. and MacKinnon, J. 2010. Lemurs of Madagascar. 3rd edition. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.

Mutschler, T.; Tan, C.L. 2003. Hapalemur, bamboo or gentle lemurs. In: S.M. Goodman, J. Benstead (ed.), The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 1324-1329. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Rajaonson, A., Ratolojanahary, M., Ratsimbazafy, J., Feistner, A. & King, T. 2010. Enquête préliminaire de la distribution des lémuriens de bambou dans et autour du Corridor forestier Fandriana-Vondrozo, Madagascar. Lemur News 15: 34-39.

Rakotonirina, L.H.F., Rajaonson, A., Ratolojanahary, J.H., Missirli, J.M., Razafy Fara, L., Raholijaona, Andriamanajaranirina, M. & King, T. 2011b. Southern range extensions for the critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur Varecia variegata and greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus. Primate Conservation.

Rakotonirina, L., Rajaonson, A., Ratolojanahary, T., Rafalimandimby, J., Fanomezantsoa, P., Ramahefasoa, B., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ratsimbazafy, J., Dolch, R. & King, T. 2011a. New distributional records and conservation implications for the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus. Folia Primatologica 82(2): 118-129.

Randrianarimanana, L., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ratolojanahary, T., Rafalimandimby, J., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Ratsimbazafy, J., Dolch, R. & King, T. 2012. Statut et conservation de Prolemur simus dans les sites de Ranomainty et Sakalava du Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena. Lemur News 16: 2-7.

Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ratolojanahary, T., Rafalimandimby, J., Rajaonson, A., Rakotonirina, L., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Ndriamiary, J.N., Andriambololona, J., Nasoavina, C., Fanomezantsoa, P., Rakotoarisoa, J.C., Youssouf, Ratsimbazafy, J., Dolch, R. & King, T. 2011. Gathering local knowledge in Madagascar results in a major increase in the known range and number of sites for critically endangered greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus). International Journal of Primatology 32(3): 776-792.

Tan, C. L. 1999. Group composition, home range size, and diet in three sympatric bamboo lemur species (genus Hapalemur) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 20: 547 ? 566.

Tan, C. L. 2000. Behavior and ecology of three sympatric bamboo lemur species (genus Hapalemur) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York, Stony Brook.

Wright, P. C., Johnson, S. E., Irwin, M. T., Jacobs, R., Schlichting, P., Lehman, S., Louis Jr., E. E., Arrigo-Nelson, S. J., Raharison, J.-L., Rafalirarison, R. R., Razafindratsita, V., Ratsimbazafy, J. R., Ratelolahy, F. R., Dolch, R. and Tan, C. 2008. The Crisis of the Critically Endangered Greater Bamboo Lemur (Prolemur simus). Primate Conservation 23.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Prolemur simus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 August 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided