Hapalemur griseus 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Lemuridae

Scientific Name: Hapalemur griseus
Species Authority: (Link, 1795)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Lesser Bamboo Lemur, Lesser Bamboo Lemur, Grey Gentle Lemur, Bamboo Lemur
French Hapalémur Gris, Petit Hapalémur
Spanish Lemur Cariancho
Synonym(s):
Hapalemur ranomafanensis Rabarivola, Prosper, Zaramody, Andriaholinirina & Hauwy, 2007
Taxonomic Notes: Most earlier authors recognized three species of bamboo lemur: H. griseus (with at least three subspecies); H. aureus, and H. simus. Groves (2001) elevated two subspecies of H. griseus to full species status (alaotrensis and occidentalis) and also transferred to H. simus to the genus Prolemur. More recently, Rabarivola et al. (2007) described two additional subspecies of H. griseus, namely H. g. gilberti from Beanamalao, between the Onive and Nosivolo Rivers, and H. g. ranomafanensis, from the area of Ranomafana. Although colour details were mentioned in the type description of H. g. ranomafanensis, their status is impossible to determine because at the same time no such details were given for H. g. griseus; the essence of the new subspecies was, in effect, that it is chromosomally polymorphic at Ranomafana and Ambongo (2n = 54, 55 or 56, whereas in H. g. griseus 2n = always 54), while at Ambolomavo, Bemaraha and Vatoalatsaka, also ascribed to this new subspecies, only 2n=56 occurs. A subspecies apparently based, at least on present evidence, on the occurrence of a polymorphism cannot be maintained (see Mittermeier et al. 2008). Mittermeier et al. (2008) recognized gilberti and griseus as full species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of ≥30% over a period of 24 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
  • 1996 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • 1988 – Insufficiently Known (K)
  • 1986 – Insufficiently Known (K)
  • 1965 – Status inadequately known-survey required or data sought

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The subspecies H. g. gilberti occurs in east-central Madagascar. Known only from its type locality of Beanamalao, and presumably a small area north of the Nesivolo River and south of the Mangoro and Onive Rivers (Rabarivola et al. 2007). Hapalemur griseus griseus is now restricted to central-eastern Madagascar, roughly from the Onibe River south to the Nesivolo River (which separates it from H. g. gilberti). Hapalemur griseus ranomafanensis occurs in two widely separated populations in east-central and west-central Madagascar. In the east it is known from the forests to the south of the Mangoro and Onive rivers (except Beanamalao, which is the type locality of H. g. gilberti). In the west it has been reported from the western forests of Tsingy de Bemaraha, probably as far as the Betsiboka River (Rabarivola et al. 2007). Further field studies are required to determine the exact extent of the distribution, in particular the boundaries between it and neighbouring forms of Hapalemur.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Hapalemur griseus has an estimated density of 2.48 individuals/km2 with a total estimated population of 818 within Ranomafana National Park. These data are based on over a hundred transect surveys from 2004 to 2009. Population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss and hunting.  

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Primary and secondary, tropical moist lowland, and montane forest, generally in stands of dense bamboo and areas of bamboo vines. Bamboo constitutes at least three quarters of the diet, primarily in the form of new shoots and leaf bases. In Ranomafana National Park, most mating takes place in June-July, with subsequent births in October-November. Home range size is 15-20 ha in Ranomafana National Park, and 6-10 ha in Analamazaotra Special Reserve. Group size is 2-7 individuals (in Mittermeier et al., 2008 and references therein).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):8

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is threatened by habitat loss and degradation, as well as unsustainable levels of hunting. 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I. The nominate subspecies occurs in two special reserves (Analamazaotra and Mangerivola), Mantadia National Park, and Bentampona Strict Nature Reserve. The Ranomafana Bamboo Lemur occurs in two national parks (Tsingy de Bemaraha and Ranomafana), but the Beanamalao Bamboo Lemur is not know to occur in any protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Groves, C.P. 2001. The Taxonomy of Primates. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Rabarivola, C., Prosper, P., Zaramody, A., Andriaholinirina, N. and Hauwy, M. 2007. Cytogenetics and taxonomy of the genus Hapalemur. Lemur News 12: 46-49.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Hapalemur griseus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T9673A16119642. . Downloaded on 24 July 2016.
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