Eudorcas rufifrons 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Eudorcas rufifrons
Species Authority: (Gray, 1846)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Red-fronted Gazelle
Synonym(s):
Gazella rufifrons Gray, 1846
Taxonomic Notes: The number of subspecies recognized has varied in the past depending on whether this species was treated as conspecific with related forms, namely the Thomson’s Gazelle E. thomsonii, and the Mongalla Gazelle E. albonotata (Gentry 1972, Kingdon 1997, East 1999). Furthermore, the form tilonura, from east of the Nile River, is either considered a subspecies of E. rufifrons (e.g., Grubb 2005), or a distinct species (Groves in press). This treatment follows Grubb (2005), with E. rufifrons occurring west of the Nile River, except for the subspecies E. r. tilonura.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Justification:
Red-fronted Gazelle populations have been reduced to scattered remnants over most of its range by illegal hunting, competition with domestic livestock and habitat degradation, and this reduction is estimated to be greater than 30% over the last three generations (15-18 years). Some populations in protected areas have increased, but the majority of the population resides outside of protected areas. If present trends continue, the Red-fronted Gazelle’s distribution and numbers will probably decline further until its status becomes Endangered or Critically Endangered, e.g., at present less than 10% of its total numbers occur in populations which are known to be stable or increasing.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Insufficiently Known (K)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species formerly occurred throughout dry grasslands and sahelian bushlands from Mauritania and northern Senegal to the western side of the Nile River in Sudan, with Heuglin's Gazelle (E. r. tilonura) ten ranging east of the Nile between the southern part of the Red Sea hills in Sudan and the southern foothills of the Ethiopian massif in western Eritrea and north-western Ethiopia (East 1999; Scholte and Hashim in press; Hashim in press). It is likely to be extinct in Ghana.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; South Sudan; Sudan
Regionally extinct:
Ghana
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The available information on this species’ numbers is based mainly on informed guesses. East (1999) produced an estimated total population of about 25,000, which includes an estimated 3,500-4,000 Heuglin’s Gazelles. At the time of East's (1999) estimate, large numbers were known to survive in Niger (ca, 4,000) and Mali (ca. 3,000). Population trends are generally downwards.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Formerly widespread in the Sahel zone in the sahelian grasslands, savannas and savanna woodlands, and shrubland. They range up to 1,400 m in the savannas of north-western Ethiopia (Yalden et al. 1996). It is able to adapt to human occupation of its habitat to some extent, e.g., it is known to re-occupy fallow land if sufficient cover is available. It occurs locally in small to moderate numbers in areas of largely unexploited rangeland. They are known to make seasonal movements, although these are increasingly restricted by human settlement.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Red-fronted Gazelle populations have been reduced to scattered remnants over most of its range by illegal hunting, competition with domestic livestock, and habitat degradation resulting from drought, overgrazing of livestock and clearance of land for agriculture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Approximately 15% of the total population of this species occurs in protected areas (East 1999), in particular W N.P. (Niger, Burkina Faso, Benin), Waza N.P. (Cameroon) and Zakouma N.P. (Chad) (East 1999; Scholte and Hashim in press). Heuglin's Gazelle is protected in Dinder N.P. in Sudan, but East (1999) noted that it does not receive effective protection here, as the sites that it prefers are utilized intensively by camel herders who trespass into the park in the dry season and destroy the gazelle’s favourite shade trees to feed their camels and goats.

The extension of effective protection and management to additional populations besides those in areas such as Zakouma, Waza and Dinder National Parks is necessary. Development and implementation of land use plans which allow for the needs of wildlife outside protected areas in countries such as Chad and Sudan would also be of major benefit to many of the remaining populations of this species (East 1999).

A limited number of Red-fronted Gazelles are maintained in captivity, but without formal breeding programmes.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Marginal  
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gentry, A. W. 1972. Genus Gazella. In: J. Meester and H. W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 85-93. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C, USA.

Groves, C. P. In press. Genus Eudorcas. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Hashim, I. In press. Eudorcas tilonura. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Scholte, P. and Hashim, I. In press. Eudorcas rufifrons. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Yalden, D.W., Largen, M.J., Kock, D. and Hillman, J.C. 1996. Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 7. Revised checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology 9(1): 73-164.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Eudorcas rufifrons. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T8973A12943749. . Downloaded on 24 June 2016.
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