|Scientific Name:||Gazella dorcas (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Several subspecies have been described for Gazella dorcas, based on phenotypic variation. However, a recent phylogeographic analysis, involving only mitochondrial DNA, found no evidence for any clear-cut geographic pattern of genetic structure and sheds doubt on the validity of any proposed subspecies (Lerp et al. 2011).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
Numbers of Dorcas Gazelle have been in decline for some time mainly due to hunting, and these declines have worsened with more intensive motorized hunting. Habitat degradation resulting from overgrazing by livestock and drought have also had negative impacts. Over the whole range, these declines are continuing and are estimated to have exceeded 30% over the last 15 years (three generations).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Dorcas Gazelle formerly occurred over the entire Sahelo-Saharan region (Durant et al. 2014), from the Mediterranean to the southern Sahel and from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, and extending into southern Israel, Syria and Jordan (marginal occurrence). And Horn of Africa. The species became extinct in Senegal, where it probably only occurred as a vagrant or a seasonal visitor (East 1999), and animals have subsequently been released into protected areas although there is no recent information on their status. They are possibly extinct in Nigeria, and their current status in Burkina Faso is unclear (Lafontaine et al. 2005).|
Native:Algeria; Chad; Djibouti; Egypt (Sinai); Eritrea; Ethiopia; Israel; Jordan; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Somalia; Sudan; Tunisia; Western Sahara
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||East (1999) compiled figures that suggested a sub-Saharan population of 35,000 to 40,000 and a total population somewhere in the tens of thousands. Numbers were declining generally, except where hunting pressure was low (East 1999).|
Lafontaine et al. (2005) report recent declines in almost all range states and say it has disappeared from many regions and is seriously reduced in numbers where it survives. The largest current populations are in Chad (especially in the Ouadi Rimé-Ouadi Achim Faunal Reserve), Niger (Aïr-Ténéré National Nature Reserve and the Termit Massif-TinToumma), and the horn countries (Scholte and Hashim 2013, and references therein). In Morocco, the wild population is estimated at 800-2,000 individuals (Cuzin et al. 2007). The population in Israel was estimated at >2,000 and stable (Clark and Frankenberg 2001). A population of 1,000-2,000 is in rapid decline in Egypt, mostly outside protected areas (Saleh 2001). There are no recent reliable population estimates for Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, although the population in each country is unlikely to exceed 1,000 individuals (Scholte and Hashim 2013). A survey of the Termit Massif, Niger estimated the population of Dorcas Gazelles at 3,000 (Wacher et al. 2008).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This gazelle inhabits a wide range of arid and semi-arid habitats, but avoids extensive areas of dunes and hyperarid areas (Cuzin 2003, Lafontaine et al. 2005). It preferentially inhabits sparsely vegetated rocky plains (Cooke et al. in press). The species has the ability to make seasonal shifts that allow it to exploit localised areas with high-quality and moisture-rich forage (Dragesco-Joffé 1993, East 1999)|
|Generation Length (years):||4.9|
|Use and Trade:||In addition to persecution by local communities and militia, there have been reports of massive slaughters by visiting Arab hunting 'parties' in parts of Africa, including the Sahel (Cloudsley-Thompson 1992), Egypt (Saleh 2001) and Morocco (Cuzin 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||Motorized hunting has had a major impact on populations (East 1999, Mallon and Kingswood 2001, Lafontaine et al. 2006) aggravated by drought, as well as habitat loss and degradation due to expanding agriculture and overgrazing by sheep and goats (Scholte and Hashim 2013). Competition with livestock and capture of young for the pet trade are said to be the main threats to the survival of the species in Djibouti (Laurent and Laurent 2002).|
Dorcas Gazelles occur in many protected areas throughout their range, including: M'Sabih Talâa Reserve and El Kheng Reserve (Morocco); Tassili and Ahaggar National Parks (Algeria); Bou-Hedma, Sidi Toui, Dghoumes, Oued Dekouk and Djebil National Parks (Tunisia); New Hisha Nature Reserve, Sabratha, Surman and El-Kouf National Park (Libya); Elba National Park and Saint Catherine Protectorate (Egypt); Banc d'Arguin National Park (Mauritania); Ouadi Rimé - Ouadi Achim Reserve (Chad); and Mille-Sardo Wildlife Reserve (Ethiopia) (Scholte and Hashim 2013). In Libya, the New Hisha Nature Reserve, Sabratha, and Surman populations are enclosed, whereas the El-Kouf National Park is free-living (T. Jdeidi pers. comm.). There are several other populations in protected areas in Morocco, but the populations listed above (M'Sabih Talâa Reserve and El Kheng Reserve) are particularly valuable as they are known to be of local origin (Cuzin et al. 2007).
Dorcas Gazelle do well in captivity, and are particularly common in several privately owned, captive collections in the Middle East (most originating from Egypt, the horn of Africa and Sudan) (Scholte and Hashim 2013). Additionally, there is a well-managed captive population in Almeria (Spain), originating from Western Saharan stock.
The species is listed on the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Appendix I and included in the CMS Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes Action Plan. It is also legally protected or partially so in several range states, and it is listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix III (Algeria, Tunisia).
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Gazella dorcas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T8969A50186334.Downloaded on 24 October 2017.|
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