Eulemur rubriventer 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Lemuridae

Scientific Name: Eulemur rubriventer
Species Authority: (I. Geoffroy, 1850)
Common Name(s):
English Red-bellied Lemur
French Lémur À Ventre Rouge
Spanish Lemur De Vientre Rojo
Taxonomic Notes: Generic synonym = Lemur.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of ≥30% over a period of 24 years (three generations), primarily due to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Indeterminate (I)
1986 Indeterminate (I)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The range of E. rubriventer extends from northern Madagascar’s Tsaratanana Massif south along the thin strip of east coast rain forest to the Pic d'Ivobe and the Manampatrana River (Irwin et al. 2005), although at one time it ranged further south. It does not occur on the Masoala Peninsula. Ranges from 70-2,400 m. Over its relatively large range the Red-bellied Lemur is sympatric with four other Eulemur species: E. albifrons in the northern part, E. fulvus toward the middle, and E. rufifrons and E. cinereiceps in the southern part. However, this species appears to be thinly distributed and restricted to intact forests, and is usually considerably more rare than other sympatric Eulemur.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Lower elevation limit (metres):70
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Eulemur rubriventer has an estimated density of 5.46 individuals/km2 with a total estimated population of 1,802 within Ranomafana National Park (Wright et al. 2012). Individuals are only found at higher altitudes. Densities vary across regions, and so cannot be assumed to be as high in other areas as in Ranomafana National Park. Overall, population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss and hunting.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species appears to be restricted mainly to primary forest habitats, as high as 2,400 m on the Tsaratanana Massif, as well as primary and secondary coastal rainforest. Its activity pattern is characterized as cathemeral, and group size varies from two to 10 individuals, the typical group containing an adult pair and their offspring. Home range size has been estimated at 12-15 ha. Young are born in September and October, after a gestation period of 123–127 days. One infant is usually born per year to each group and mortality is approximately 50%. Weaning occurs at 6–7 months. They are very specialized frugivores, and an important seed disperser (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):8

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is habitat loss due to slash-and-burn practices and illegal logging. Also subject to hunting, which can be heavy in certain areas, such as Mantadia.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. Though relatively widespread this species appears to be everywhere uncommon, and has declined drastically in number in recent years. It is known to occur in five national parks (Andringitra, Mantadia, Marojejy, Ranomafana, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Tsaratanana and Zahamena), and six special reserves (Ambatovaky, Analamazaotra, Anjanaharibe-Sud, Mangerivola, Marotandrano, and Pic d' Ivohibe) (Nicoll and Langrand 1989, Schmid and Smolker 1998). As of 2009, there were approximately 165 individuals reported in zoological collections worldwide (ISIS 2009).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Irwin, M. T., Johnson, S. E. and Wright, P. C. 2005. The state of lemur conservation in Southeastern Madagascar: Population and habitat assessments for diurnal lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39: 204–218.

ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Nicoll, M.E., & O.Langrand. 1989. Madagascar : revue de la conservation et des aires protégées. World Wildlife Fund, Gland, CH.

Schmid, J. and R. Smolker. 1998. Lemurs of the Reserve Speciale d’Anjanaharibe-Sud, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology 90: 227–240.

Wright, P.C., Erhart, E.M., Tecot, S.R., Baden, A.L., Arrigo-Nelson, S., Morelli, T.L., Deppe, A., Blanco, M., Atsalis, S., Johnson, S.E., Ratelolahy, F., Tan, C. L. M., Zohdy, S., King, S.J. 2012. Long-term lemur research at Centre ValBio, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. In: P.M. Kappeler and D.P. Watts (eds), Long-Term Field Studies of Primates, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur rubriventer. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T8203A16117921. . Downloaded on 04 May 2016.
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