Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lichtensteinii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lichtensteinii (Peers, 1849)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Lichtenstein's Hartebeest
Synonym(s):
Alcelaphus lichtensteinii (Peers, 1849)
Taxonomic Notes: Lichtenstein's Hartebeest (A. b. lichtensteinii) is here included as one of eight subspecies of Hartebeest, following Gosling and Capellini (2013), in contrast to Grubb (2005). The others being: Bubal Hartebeest (A. b. buselaphus); Western Hartebeest or Kanki (A. b. major); Coke's Hartebeest or Kongoni (A. b. cokii); Tora Hartebeest (A. b. tora); Swayne's Hartebeest or Korkay (A. b. swaynei); Lelwel Hartebeest (A. b. lelwel); and Red Hartebeest (A. b. caama). Wilson and Reeder (1993) list this as Sigmoceros lichtensteinii.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-07-26
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Cooke, R.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern because the population remains large and is not declining a rate severe enough to approach threatened status. Though Lichtenstein’s Hartebeest is highly vulnerable to hunting, and its long-term survival is closely linked to the continuation of effective protection of its populations in areas such as Selous Game Reserve and the other key areas for this species in western and southern Tanzania and Zambia, most of these populations are stable. The status will not change as long as these areas generally continue to support healthy, stable populations.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Lichtenstein’s Hartebeest formerly occurred widely in the miombo woodlands of south-central Africa (probably as far south as KwaZulu-Natal), but now occur mainly in wildlife areas in Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia; they are extinct in Burundi and probably Angola (East 1999, Gosling and Capellini 2013).

For the distribution map, see the parent species assessment: Alcelaphus buselaphus.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Tanzania, United Republic of; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Regionally extinct:
Burundi
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) estimated the population of Lichtenstein's Hartebeest at 82,000 individuals, with sizeable populations surviving only in Tanzania, particularly in the Selous ecosystem, and Zambia, in Kafue and Luangwa Valley (Gosling and Capellini 2013). Densities of Lichtenstein's Hartebeest range from 0.2 to 3.5/km2 (Booth 1985). Foley et al. (2014) said there are 17,000-18,000 in the Selous Game Reserve and c. 4,500 in other PAs.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:58000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:More tolerant of woodland areas and high grass than other alcelaphines, Hartebeest (including Lichtenstein's Hartebeest) prefer the edge to the middle of open plains (Estes 1991, Gosling and Capellini 2013) and thus appear to be an edge or ecotone species (Booth 1985), generally avoiding more closed woodland. Lichtenstein's Hartebeest utilise grassland clearings within the miombo woodland of south-eastern Africa (Gosling and Capellini 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):7.5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hartebeest (including Lichtenstein's Hartebeest) are hunted for food and sport and are particularly valued for their high-quality meat (Gosling and Capellini 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to Hartebeest in general, and including Lichtenstein's Hartebeest, are agro-pastoral development and hunting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Areas holding important populations of Lichtenstein's Hartebeest include: Selous ecosystem (the main stronghold in Africa), Moyowosi-Kigosi, Ugalla River, Katavi-Rukwa and Ruaha-Rungwa-Kisigo (Tanzania) and in Kafue National Park and the Luangwa Valley (Zambia). Lichtenstein's Hartebeest seems to be relatively secure, partly because there are several very large reserves within their range and perhaps because this subspecies is exploited to a lesser extent (Gosling and Capellini 2013).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Booth, V. R. 1985. Some Notes on Lichtenstein Hartebeest, Alcelaphus lichtensteini (Peters). South African Journal of Zoology 20: 57-60.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.

Foley, C., Foley, L., Lobora, A., De Luca, D., Msuha, M., Davenport, T.R.B. and Durant, S. 2014. A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

Gosling, L.M. and Capellini, I. 2013. Alcelaphus buselaphus Hartebeest. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 511-526. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds). 1993. Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lichtensteinii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T812A50181339. . Downloaded on 25 September 2017.
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