|Scientific Name:||Erethizon dorsatum|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Linzey, A.V., Emmons, L. & Timm, R.|
|Reviewer/s:||McKnight, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Southern half of Canada, and northern and western United States, as well as scattered populations elsewhere in the eastern U.S. On the northern boundary of Mexico from the lower-middle Baja Peninsula east to the eastern border of mainland Mexico in a relatively straight line, but not in Baja or the Yucatan (Ceballos and Oliva 2005).|
Native:Canada; Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The North American porcupine is common and widespread. Local population densities range from 1 individual/km2 - 9.5 individuals/km2, with cyclical population peaks every 12-20 years (Woods 1973).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Porcupines are found in a variety of habitats including dense forests, tundra, grasslands and desert shrub communities.
The diet is also generalized, but shows a marked difference between winter and summer seasons. Winter foods are primarily the bark, cambium and phloem of trees such as eastern and western hemlock, sugar maple, and Douglas fir. Porcupines will often feed heavily on a single tree, causing extensive damage or death. In the spring the diet shifts as porcupines begin feeding on roots, steams, leaves, berries, seeds and grasses. This species is primarily nocturnal and does not hibernate (Woods 1973).
Reproduction occurs during fall or early winter. Following a relatively long gestation, females give birth to one young in spring or early summer. Litters of more than 1 are uncommon (Woods 1973). An individual North American porcupine may have as many as 30,000 quills, measuring 7.5 cm long, which are used for defense purposes. Typical defense behavior is backing up towards the predator, swinging the tail, which has a high concentration of quills.
No major threats to the species as a whole.
However, because of the damage caused to property, including trees, crops and car tires, porcupines are often hunted or trapped. In Mexico, it is considered in danger of extinction due to hunting (Ceballos and Oliva 2005). More effective population controls may be the management of a healthy population of fishers, the porcupine's main predator. Mortality is also known to be caused by collisions with automobiles (Woods 1973).
|Conservation Actions:||North American porcupine habitat falls within several protected areas within Canada, the U.S., and Mexico which has allowed the species to reestablish its populations.|
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V., Emmons, L. & Timm, R. 2008. Erethizon dorsatum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
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