|Scientific Name:||Argyrosomus hololepidotus|
|Species Authority:||(Lacepède, 1801)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Heemstra, P.C. (South African Institute for Aquatic Biology)|
|Reviewer(s):||Donaldson, T.J. & Edgar, G. (Coral Reef Fishes Red List Authority)|
Although fisheries data and fishery-independent data appears non-existent for this species. This species’ large size, known-life history traits, coupled with what appears to be considerable fishing pressure on all fish species applied by an expanding human population within the range of the species all strongly suggest that this species is at considerable risk of extinction. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both within the threshold levels for Endangered, there are less than five locations and there is ongoing decline due to fishing activities.
|Range Description:||Endemic to the southeast coast of Madagascar. The extent of occurrence is <5,000 km² and the area of occupancy is <500 km².|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to possibly number less than 10,000 mature individuals which are all in a single subpopulation which is undergoing continuing decline (could qualify as Vulnerable under criterion C2a(ii) on the basis of this). Current declines are suspected to be about 10% over the last three generations. Generation length is not known, but similar large members of this family are distinguished by relatively long lifespans and long generation lengths.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Juveniles occur in mangroves and estuaries. Adults are found off sandy beaches, in estuaries, and in shallow water. This species might migrate and form spawning aggregations.
It is a benthic carnivore feeding upon fishes, crustaceans and molluscs. Both sexes have drumming muscles.
Fisheries data and fishery-independent data appears non-existent for this species, however, it is likely to be caught both deliberately and accidentally as bycatch. The species is eaten by local people (primarily subsistence consumption, but there is some trade).
The inshore area and estuaries are also increasingly being impacted by various pollutants as a result of the expanding human population in the region. This species has a low capacity to tolerate impacts without irreversible change.
|Conservation Actions:||A variety of conservation actions are needed from basic research on the species, local legislation and management, protected areas, etc.|
|Citation:||Heemstra, P.C. (South African Institute for Aquatic Biology). 2007. Argyrosomus hololepidotus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T63570A12692390. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63570A12692390.en . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.|