|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.
||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)
The native populations (Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins) are slowly but continuously declining due to river regulation. Also hybridisation with domesticated introduced stocks, East Asian congeners and their hybrids, is a serious long term threat for the species. However, superficially pure carp (currently it is impossible to identify pure carp by genetic analysis) are still abundant in the lower parts of rivers within its native range. Most likely, only very few stocks remain "genetically unpolluted" as a result of this long lasting process. The average age of the spawners is estimated to be between 20-25 years, as they are a long lived species (up to 50 years). Although no population data exists, it is suspected that in the past 60 to 75 years within the species native range, river regulation (due to channelization and dams), which impacts the species as they need flooded areas at very specific times to successfully spawn, and hybridisation with introduced stock, has caused a population decline of over 30%.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 1996 – Data Deficient (DD) –
|Range Description:||Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins. Introduced throughout the world. Cultivated in large quantities for human food and stocked for sport fishing.|
In Europe, C. carpio has apparently been domesticated since the Middle Ages and cultivated stocks are assumed to be derived from the wild form of the Danube. Wild stocks occur naturally only in rivers draining to the Black, Caspian and Aral Seas. C. carpio is widely cultivated worldwide, but in fact many cultivated stocks (and most of the Asian ones) belong to several other East Asian species. One of them, C. rubrofuscus (often erroneously referred to as C. carpio haematopterus) is cultivated in several eastern European countries and has been introduced to Russia and Ukraine. It is not known whether it has become established there. In western Europe, Japanese ornamental varieties (kois) possibly derived from C. rubrofuscus or of hybrid origin occasionally escape from ponds. Wild C. rubrofuscus are distinguished from wild C. carpio by having 29-33 + 2-3 lateral line scales (vs. 33-37 + 2-3), 18-22½ branched dorsal rays (vs. 17-20½), body silvery with red pelvic, anal and lower caudal lobe (vs. grey to bronze).
Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Moldova; Pakistan; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|