|Scientific Name:||Calopteryx exul|
|Species Authority:||Selys, 1853|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Samraoui, B. (Odonata Red List Authority) & Pollock, C.M. (IUCN Red List Unit)|
This species is confined to an area of about 271,000 km² (extent of occurrence) along the north Maghrebian mountains from Morocco to Tunisia. Some populations have become extinct due to stream drying, which may be due to climatic fluctuations combined with human use for agricultural purposes. In Algeria, many previously known populations are extinct due to heavy stream pollution. The species has recently been rediscovered in Algeria. The whole range is fragmented (known localities are a small area in Tunisia, a recent record in Algeria, and a larger area in Morocco: total area of occupancy (AOO) is around 25 km²). The species may be relatively mobile, but more studies are required to confirm distance travelled by individuals. Based on its restricted AOO, severe fragmentation and continuing declines it is assessed as Endangered under criterion B.
The species currently also meets the thresholds for the Vulnerable category under criteria B and C. Almost all localities exhibit only a low density and many in Morocco and Tunisia have recently declined due to stream pollution and drying during summer, in connection to agricultural practices, irrigation, water harnessing and domestic discharge. The total population is presently less than 10,000 imagoes. A minimum of 30% of the overall localities have been lost by within the last 100 years, and this will certainly continue in the future, owing to demographic expansion in the Maghreb [x2.5 in Morocco, x3.1 in Algeria and x2.3 in Tunisia from 1961 to 2003 (FAO 2004-2005)] and global climatic changes. A decline of at least 10% is expected within the next 10 years.
|Range Description:||Calopteryx exul is a north Maghrebian endemic.|
Native:Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||At least 32 subpopulations are known. Seven of these occur in Algeria, are based on old records, and are most probably extinct. However, new subpopulations were discovered in Algeria in 2007.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Fast-flowing mountain streams.|
|Major Threat(s):||Water pollution, drying up of streams due to water extraction for irrigation, overgrazing and drought are major threats to the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||Control of water pollution and reserve establishment through policy-based actions, increasing awareness, and research into population numbers and range, biology and ecology, habitat status, threats, and trends/monitoring would be valuable.|
|Citation:||Boudot, J.-P. 2010. Calopteryx exul. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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