|Scientific Name:||Zygonyx torridus|
|Species Authority:||(Kirby, 1889)|
Pseudomacromia atlantica Martin, 1900
Zygonyx torrida misspelling
Zygonyx torridus (Kirby, 1899) subspecies insulanus Pinhey, 1981
Zygonyx torridus (Kirbyi, 1899) subspecies isis Fraser, 1924
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Clausnitzer, V., Suhling, F., Ferreira, S. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B.|
|Reviewer/s:||Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Clausnitzer, V., Suhling, F., Samways, M., Samraoui, B., Boudot, J.P., Kipping, J. & Allen, D. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit) (IUCN Pan Africa Freshwater Biodiversity Assessement workshop, Cairo, 2009).|
This is a widespread species with no known major widespread threats that is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
In central, eastern, western, southern and northeastern Africa, the species is also assessed as Least Concern.
In northern Africa, there are between three and five known breeding sites of Zygonyx torridus (three with exuvia, two without) in Morocco, which are not especially isolated from each other, and only a single waterfall site in Tunisia. Up to around 50 adults and 11 exuvia have been seen at one location in Morocco, but they are generally present at much lower numbers. The species can disperse easily. Its area of occupancy in the region is around 6-7 km². There is likely to be movement of adults between the northern African and central and western African populations (as well between the Iberian populations), so despite the low number of breeding sites within the northern African region, and the small range, the species is assessed as Near Threatened for the region (dropping the preliminary Vulnerable assessment down by one category). However, there is a great need for more studies of this species to better understand the population dynamics between the regional distributions, and the threat status of the species may increase with better data.
|Range Description:||The species is widespread in Africa, southern Europe, Middle East and southern Asia.
In central Africa, it is known from Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Central African Republic, Zambia.
In eastern Africa, it has been recorded in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi and Burundi: common and widespread in all 5 countries (Burundi assumed).
The species is potentially present in the southern countries of the northern African region (Mauritania and Mali), but, to date, there are no records for these countries.
In northeastern Africa, the species is recorded from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan. Its presence in Uganda is assumed.
In southern Africa, the species is widespread in the southern Africa region, except for in the Kalahari.
In western Africa, the species is known from Nigeria to Gambia.
Native:Afghanistan; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Portugal; Réunion; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Spain; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a widespread species. In northern Africa, the species is a vagrant with several potential and recorded breeding sites in Morocco. There is probably an exchange between populations in Iberian and those in central, western and northern Africa. Very small numbers of exuvia have been collected, to a maximum of 50 adults and 11 exuvia at one location. The species forms migrant clouds that may move from location to location.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It is found in streams and rivers in bush, savannah, woodland and thin forest, often above or near rapids.
In northern Africa,typical habitats of the species are waterfalls and rapids of permanent rivers and brooks in the steppe and arid regions. Suitable sites are frequently successfully settled, even if they are extremely isolated, as in tropical rainforest or in desert (Kunz et al. 2006).
|Major Threat(s):||There is no much information available on specific threats and the available data give no indication of a decline of the species in this region (Kunz et al. 2006). Water pollution, abstraction and river damming are the key threats. In the Canary Islands, human impacts on the natural freshwater resources are the main threat to the species (Kunz et al. 2006).|
|Conservation Actions:||No precise information available but research into trends and monitoring of the species would be valuable. Control of water pollution, and conservation of habitats are also needed.|
|Citation:||Clausnitzer, V., Suhling, F., Ferreira, S. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. 2010. Zygonyx torridus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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