|Scientific Name:||Orthetrum trinacria|
|Species Authority:||(Selys, 1841)|
Populations from Iraq and Kuwait have been ascribed to a poorly defined subspecies, Orthetrum trinacria igarashii Asahina, 1973. Its taxonomic status needs clarification.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Samraoui, B., Suhling, F. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B.|
|Reviewer/s:||García, N., Tognelli, M. & Suhling, F.|
This is a widespread species with no known major widespread threats that is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category. Therefore, it is assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Orthetrum trinacria is widespread throughout the whole of Africa, except in the tropical rainforest, and the Middle East, and reaches the south of Europe. The easternmost localities are in western Iran, the northernmost ones in northern Sardinia. Former records from Anatolia are doubtful but recent authenticated records from northern Syria, southern Turkey, Greece, Malta and south west Iberia point toward a recent expansion and increase in density of the species to the north, probably due both to climate warming and construction of new man-made pools which are promptly colonized.|
Native:Algeria; Angola (Angola, Angola); Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Greece (East Aegean Is.); Guinea; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lesotho; Libya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mayotte; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia (Caprivi Strip, Namibia (main part)); Niger; Nigeria; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North-West Province, Western Cape); South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sudan; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia); Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This Afrotropical species is generally met in large colonies where it is found in Africa and southern Europe.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Orthetrum trinacria is well adapted to various fresh and brackish slow-flowing and standing waters, including flood plain backwaters (oxbow lakes, seasonally inundated depressions on river sides), pools and permanent sections of discontinuous and temporary flowing rivers, large man-made dam lakes, large permanent rivers, irrigation ditches and collecting channels and cisterns in oases. It is still able to develop under high salinity (150% of that of sea water (Suhling et al. 2003)). The larval period is short so that the species is able to reproduce successfully in temporary water bodies. Orthetrum trinacria is therefore well adapted to littoral dune lakes and desert and semi-desert environments with temporary waters showing increasing salt concentrations from the rainy season to the dry season.|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat modification caused by agriculture and water pollution are impacts to the species, although it is not considered to be affecting the species at global level.|
|Conservation Actions:||This is a widespread and common species and no specific actions are required at the global scale. However, local declines may occur due to pollution, agriculture and water abstraction. Taxonomic investigations about the status of Iraqi populations would be recommended.|
|Citation:||Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Samraoui, B., Suhling, F. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. 2013. Orthetrum trinacria. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|