Salamandrella keyserlingii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Hynobiidae

Scientific Name: Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski, 1870
Common Name(s):
English Siberian Salamander, Dybowski's Salamander , Manchurian Salamander, Siberian Newt
Hynobius michnoi Nikolskii, 1925
Hynobius cristatus (Andersson, 1917)
Hynobius doii Abé, 1922
Hynobius keyserlingii (Dybowski, 1870)
Isodactylium schrenckii Strauch, 1870
Isodactylium wosnessenskyi Strauch, 1870
Salamandrella cristata Andersson, 1917
Salamandrella schrenckii (Strauch, 1870)
Salamandrella skvorzovii Pavlov, 1934
Salamandrella wosnessenskyi (Strauch, 1870)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Berman et al. 2005 removed Salamandrella schrenkii from the synonymy of S. keyserlingii. However, on the advice of S.L. Kuzmin pers. comm. we do not not follow this change here, pending a larger scale resolution of the taxonomic issues associated with this species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Kuzmin, S., Ishchenko, V., Matsui, M., Wenge, Z. & Kaneko, Y.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from the north of European Russia (Arkhangelskaya Province) through the Polar Urals and Siberia to Chukotka Peninsula, then southwards along the Pacific coast to northeastern China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoling and Inner Mongolia Provinces), northern Democratic People's Republic of Korea, central Mongolia, southern Siberia, and through northern Kazakhstan to Nizhegorodskaya Province in European Russia. The species is also present in Kushiro marshland in Hokkaido, Japan, and the disputed island of Kunashiri.
Countries occurrence:
China; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Mongolia; Russian Federation
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In general this species is common over its wide range. There are some localized declines in parts of its range, in Mongolia (the southern margin of the species' range), there are small isolated populations, some of which are declining and are considered to be threatened.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found in wet coniferous, mixed, deciduous forests in the taiga zone and riparian groves in tundra and forest steppe. In forests, it is mostly found in glades and along the edges of woods not far from stagnant or semi-flowing waters. It is more rarely found in meadows, willow stands, fields, suburban and urban areas. In the Polar Urals and the north of West Siberia, the species is found on the shores of small lakes surrounded with swamps in shrubby and sedge-shrubby tundras. In the forest steppe region it is found in marshes in meadows, meadow steppes and small-leafed forests. The species breeds in ditches, pools and slow-flowing streams.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. The species is locally threatened by desiccation of wetlands, loss of terrestrial habitat, pollution and increased urbanization.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is present in many protected areas. It is listed in the Red Data Books of the Middle Urals (Perm and Sverdlovsk provinces of Russia) and the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous County (Russia), Altaiskii Region (Russia), as well as the Red Data Book of Mongolia. The species is protected in Heilongjiang Province, China and is designated a natural monument by Kushiro City and Shibecha Town, Japan.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
4. Grassland -> 4.2. Grassland - Subarctic
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.10. Wetlands (inland) - Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.13. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Inland Deltas
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

1994. The Siberian Newt (Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski, 1870): Zoogeography, Systematics, Morphology. Nauka, Moscow.

1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.

Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.

Berman, D.I., Derenko, M.V., Malyarchuk, B.A., Grzybowski, T., Kryukov, A.P. Miscicka-Sliwka, D. 2005. Genetic polymorphism of Siberian newt (Salamandrella keyserlingii, Caudata, Amphibia) in its range and the cryptic species of the newt S. schrenckii from Primorie. Doklady Biological Sciences 403: 1-6, 275.

Emelianov, A.A. 1944. Amfibii i Reptilii Sovetskogo Dalnego Vostoka [Amphibians and Reptiles of the Soviet Far East] (D.Sc.Diss.). Vladivostok.

Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.

Garanin, V.I. 2000. The distribution of amphibians in the Volga-Kama region. Advances in Amphibian Research in the former Soviet Union, pp. 79-132.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx 30: 24-30.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.

Kuzmin, S.L., Borkin, L.J., Vorobyeva, E.I., Darevsky, I.S., Munkhbayar, Kh. and Semenov, D.V. 1988. Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians. Nauka, Moscow.

MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International, Hong Kong.

Maslova, I.V. 2001. Sravnitelnaya Kharakteristika Biologii Zemnovodnykh Yuzhnogo Primorya [Comparative Characterization of the Biology of Amphibians in the Southern Primorye]. PhD Dissertation, Vladivostok.

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Munkhbayar, Kh. 1976. Mongol Orny Khoer Nutagtan, Khevleer Yavagchid [Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolia]. Ministry of Education, Ulaanbaatar.

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Terbish, Kh. and Munkhbayar, Kh. 1998. The distribution of amphibian and reptiles in the protected areas of Mongolia. Third Asian Herpetol. Meeting: Abstracts, pp. 39. Almaty.

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Citation: Kuzmin, S., Ishchenko, V., Matsui, M., Wenge, Z. & Kaneko, Y. 2008. Salamandrella keyserlingii. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T59114A11883606. . Downloaded on 28 May 2018.
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