Ambystoma macrodactylum 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Ambystomatidae

Scientific Name: Ambystoma macrodactylum
Species Authority: (Baird, 1850)
Common Name(s):
English Long-toed Salamander
Ambystoma macrodactyla Baird, 1850
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Green, C., Sharp, D. & Garcia Moreno, J.

Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations and locations, presumed large population size, and use of a wide range of habitats.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The range includes western North America and extends from southeastern Alaska southward to Tuolumne County, California, east to Rocky Mountains, British Columbia, west-central Alberta, western Montana, and central Idaho. There are isolated populations in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California (Bury et al. 1980). Elevational range extends from sea level to about 3,050 meters (Stebbins 2003). The extent of occurrence is around 1,438,000 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Alberta, British Columbia); United States (Alaska, California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington)
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3050
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total adult population size is unknown, but it surely exceeds 10,000 and is relatively stable.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from semiarid sagebrush deserts to sub alpine meadows, including dry woodlands, humid forests, and the rocky shores of mountain lakes. Adults are subterranean except during the breeding season. Breeding sites include temporary or permanent ponds (including artificial ponds), or quiet water at the edge of lakes and streams. During the breeding season adults may be found under logs, rocks, and other debris near water. Eggs are attached to vegetation or loose on bottom. It has a free-living larval stage.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the Cascades of northern Washington, larval abundance was related to both lake productivity and the presence of introduced predatory trout (reduced larval abundance when trout present) (Tyler et al. 1998). In Montana, introduced trout populations clearly excluded salamanders from lakes (Funk and Dunlap 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Needed
Fisheries management could improve the status of salamander populations by not introducing non-native fishes into salamander habitats. Removal of these predators from otherwise favorable salamander habitat is appropriate in many locations. 

Research Needed
Research is required for population trends, size and monitoring.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Ambystoma macrodactylum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T59063A56539990. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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