Megophrys baluensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Megophryidae

Scientific Name: Megophrys baluensis (Boulenger, 1899)
Common Name(s):
English Kinabalu Horned Frog, Balu Spadefoot Toad
Leptobrachium baluense Boulenger, 1899
Xenophrys baluensis (Boulenger, 1899)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2018. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2018-01-17
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Iskandar, D., Das, I., Lakim, M., Yambun, P., Stuebing, R. & Inger, R.F.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Neam, K.
Listed as Least Concern since, although its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,173 km2, it occurs in two well-protected and well-managed national parks, where suitable habitat remains, and there are no threats at present.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This Bornean endemic species is known from Kinabalu and Crocker Range National Parks in Sabah, Malaysia, from 1,200–1,900 m asl. It might also occur in Mount Trus Madi, however this requires confirmation (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018). The estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of its known range is 1,173 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Malaysia (Sabah)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no estimates of population size, but it appears to be common in Kinabulu National Park (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018). The population is considered to be stable (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is restricted to montane forests, where adults and juveniles have been found in leaf-litter on the forest floor. Breeding is thought to take place in slow-flowing regions of clear, rocky streams.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to the species at present as it occurs within two well-managed and well-protected areas (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in Kinabalu and Crocker Range National Parks, which are well-protected.

Conservation Needed
Continuation of rigorous management of the existing protected areas to protect forest habitat is the best guarantee for the conservation of this species.

Research Needed
Surveys of potentially suitable areas of habitat in adjacent parts of Borneo are needed to determine whether or not this species might occur elsewhere, and also to help better understand its current population status.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2018. Megophrys baluensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T57631A123692546. . Downloaded on 18 August 2018.
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