Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Mantellidae

Scientific Name: Mantidactylus ulcerosus
Species Authority: (Boettger, 1880)
Common Name(s):
English Warty Madagascar Frog
Limnodytes ulcerosus Boettger, 1880
Rana ulcerosa (Boettger, 1880)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This wide-ranging species, which occurs in both wet and dry forest, is probably a complex of many species. Lehtinen and Ramanamanjato (2006) recorded Stumpffia cf. tetradactyla from Sainte Luce and Mandena; the identity of these animals requires further study and they are not included as part of this assessment.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Nussbaum, R. & Vences, M.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species complex is widely distributed in Madagascar except the high plateau and in the arid southwest. The map is not very meaningful, since it is an unresolved complex. It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,600m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a very abundant species.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is associated with (usually slow-flowing) streams in rainforest and in heavily degraded areas, and in open swampy areas. It does survive in agricultural land. It breeds in many types of water, especially slow-flowing streams.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is generally not seriously threatened, since it is very adaptable. However, some of the cryptic species within the complex might prove to be threatened, especially by pollution of streams, and extreme opening up of the habitat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Vences, M. and Randrianirina, J.E. 2003. The amphibians and reptiles of Nosy Be island (NW Madagascar) and nearby islands: a case study of diversity and conservation of an insular fauna. Journal of Natural History: 2119-2149.

Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. 1979. Biosystematics of the Malagasy frogs. I. Mantellinae (Ranidae). Beaufortia: 1-77.

Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. and Blanc, C.P. 1991. Amphibiens (première partie). Fauna de Madagascar: 1-379.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1992. Zur Kenntnis der Gattungen Boophis, Aglyptodactylus und Mantidactylus (Amphibia: Anura) aus Madagaskar mit Beschreibung einer neuen Art. Bonner Zoologische Beiträege: 45-77.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Second Edition. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Lehtinen, R.M. and Ramanamanjato, J.-B. 2006. Effects of rainforest fragmentation and correlates of local extinction in a herpetofauna from Madagascar. Applied Herpetology 3: 95-110.

Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Raselimanana, A.P. and Ramanamanjato, J.-B. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andohahela, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology: 155-173.

Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of the amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals at Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation: 65-73.

Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of Andringitra Massif: a study of elevational distribution and local endemicity. Fieldiana Zoology: 158-170.

Citation: Nussbaum, R. & Vences, M. 2008. Mantidactylus ulcerosus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T57530A11654156. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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