Gephyromantis horridus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Mantellidae

Scientific Name: Gephyromantis horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Common Name(s):
English Boettger's Grainy Frog
Arthroleptis horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Hemimantis horrida Boettger, 1880
Laurentomantis horrida (Boettger, 1880)
Mantidactylus horridus (Boettger, 1880)
Trachymantis horrida (Boettger, 1880)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species was revised by Vences et al. (2002).

It was described from Nosy Be Island over 100 years ago and never seen there again (many species have Nosy Be as their type locality because an important port was situated there, but those species never actually occurred on the island and this record of G. horridus was suspected to one such mistake; however, the natural history museum in Vienna traced a specimen collected by Brancsik in 1890 from the island confirming that the species actually occured on Nosy Be (Glaw and Vences 2011).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-11-27
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Andreone, F. & Glaw, F.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Luedtke, J. & Hobin, L.
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is10,661 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented and occurs in three threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in northern Madagascar.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from northern Madagascar at Montagne d'Ambre, Tsaratanana and Nosy Be Island, between 300-1,400 m asl. However no modern records of this species have been made from Nosy Be (F. Glaw pers. comm. November 2015). Following Vences et al. (2002), records from eastern Madagascar are not considered here. It is known from three threat-defined locations, and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 10,661 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:3
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a rare species with very few records and its population size is unknown. However, its population is thought to be severely fragmented as it occurs in three isolated sub-populations between which dispersal is very difficult or impossible. Due to ongoing declines in the extent and quality of the habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits lowland and montane rainforest, and is not found in disturbed areas. It probably breeds by direct development, but this requires confirmation.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is habitat loss due to subsistence agriculture, timber extraction, charcoal manufacture, the invasive spread of eucalyptus, livestock grazing, and expanding human settlements.

Species in this genus have tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), however currently there have been no negative effects observed within amphibian populations in Madagascar suggesting the Bd strain has a low virulence level (Bletz et al., 2015).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in at least two protected areas: Tsaratanana Strict Nature Reserve and Montagne d'Ambre National Park.

Conservation Needed
Improved protection and management of forests throughout the region is required, including within the boundaries of protected areas.

Research Needed
Further research is required to clarify the species' distribution - especially surveys to establish its presence on Nosy Be - its population size and trends, and is essential to fully understand the distribution, origin, type and virulence of Bd lineages found in Madagascar (Bletz et al., 2015).

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Gephyromantis horridus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T57489A84172510. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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