Afrixalus orophilus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Hyperoliidae

Scientific Name: Afrixalus orophilus
Species Authority: (Laurent, 1947)
Common Name(s):
English Kivu Banana Frog, Montane Spiny Reed Frog, Two-lined Leaf-gluing Frog
Megalixalus orophilus Laurent, 1947
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: The species was resurrected from synonymy with Afrixalus brachycnemis. This means that specimens listed under this name need to be examined.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-07-25
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Angulo, A.
Contributor(s): Plumptre, A., Schiøtz, A., Greenbaum, E., Vonesh, J.R., Menegon, M., Drewes, R. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Measey, J., Morris, E.J. & Luedtke, J.
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its relatively wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, and its presumed large population.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:According to Schiøtz (1999), this species occurs in the highlands of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), western Rwanda, north-western Burundi, and south-western Uganda. Its altitudinal range is unclear, although it is probably above 1,500 m asl. There is uncertainty about the identity of the specimens collected in DRC, and therefore about the distribution of this species. Its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 46,538 km².
Countries occurrence:
Burundi; Rwanda; Uganda
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Collections of the species were made in 1996, when it was not considered very abundant. It has been found in surveys of suitable habitat above 1,800 m asl in Nyungwe, Rwanda, was collected in 2008 at Rugezi Swamp on the shore of Lake Burera in Rwanda (E. Greenbaum pers. comm. July 2014), and possibly Kahuzi-Biega National Parks, DRC. However, the species has not been found at its type location despite several targeted surveys between 2007-2014 (E. Greenbaum pers. comm. July 2014).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Its habitat is not well known, but it has been found in montane grassland, montane bamboo forests, and in wetland areas in reeds and papyrus. It breeds in marshy areas via larval development.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

This species has been identified in the pet trade (Carr et al. 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Little information is available, though it is likely to be impacted by ongoing loss of habitat for agriculture and human settlements. Mining is ongoing throughout the species' range; however, it is unknown whether any current operations are impacting the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has been recorded from Bwindi National Park in Uganda and Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, although the latter protected area is not currently effectively managed, so improved management of this protected area is needed. More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, natural history and threats. Ongoing research may help elucidate its taxonomy and whether more than one species are included under this name.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing  ♦ severity: Unknown  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Carr, J., Outhwaite, W., Goodman, G., Oldfield, T. and Foden, W. 2013. Vital but vulnerable: climate change vulnerability and human use of wildlife in Africa's Albertine Rift. Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Drewes, R.C. and Vindum, J.V. 1994. Amphibians of the impenetrable forest, Southwest Uganda. Journal of African Zoology: 55-70.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Available at: (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

Laurent, R.F. 1972. Amphibiens. Exploration du Parc National des Virunga, 2e Ser.: 1-125.

Laurent, R.F. 1982. Le genre Afrixalus Laurent (Hyperoliidae) en Afrique Centrale. Annales Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques: 1-58.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Vonesh, J. 2001. Natural history and biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contemporary Herpetology.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Afrixalus orophilus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T56072A16937272. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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