Nectophrynoides viviparus 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Nectophrynoides viviparus
Species Authority: (Tornier, 1905)
Common Name(s):
English Morogoro Tree Toad, Robust Forest Toad
Synonym(s):
Pseudophryne vivipara Tornier, 1905
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27 January 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: Further taxonomic investigations are required on this species as more than one taxon may be represented.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-12-17
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Liedtke , C., Howell, K., Poynton, J. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J. & Luedtke, J.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and degree of tolerance to disturbance.
Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:In the previous assessment, this species was known only from the Uluguru and Udzungwa Mountains in the east and Mount Rungwe in the south of Tanzania. Its range has been expanded to include Mahenge, the Livingston and Rubeho Mountains. It is a montane species ranging from 1,350-2,800m asl occurring in approximately six threat-defined locations. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 55,263 km2 and a rough estimate of its area of occupancy (AOO) equals 2,399 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:2399
Number of Locations:6
Lower elevation limit (metres):1350
Upper elevation limit (metres):2800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a relatively common species, but its population is suspected to be both severely fragmented and decreasing due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It lives in sub-montane and montane forest, and montane grassland, where it is found low in the vegetation and on the ground. It can tolerate some disturbance to its habitat and can survive in banana plantations, but probably not in very open areas. It breeds by internal fertilization, the females retaining the larvae internally in the oviduct until little toadlets are born.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species has been reported as being illegally traded (K. Howell pers. comm. June 2012).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is habitat disturbance, especially at lower altitudes, due to agricultural encroachment, wood extraction and expanding human settlements.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in several forest reserves, including the Uluguru Nature Reserve. It might occur in the Udzungwa National Park, but has thus far not been recorded. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.

Conservation Needed
Improved protection of its habitat and management of protected areas is required.

Research Needed
Further information is required on the species' distribution and population status.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal season: resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Unknown season: resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Unknown
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%)   
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Channing, A., Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Akker, S. 2005. A new forest toad from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania (Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides). African Journal of Herpetology 54: 149-157.

Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: J.C. Lovett and S.K. Wasser (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Menegon, M. 2000. Nectophrynoides viviparus diet. Herpetological Review 31: 41.

Perret, J.-L. 1971. Les especes du genre Nectophrynoides d'Afrique (Batraciens Bufonides). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun 6: 99-109.

Perret, J.-L. 1972. Les especes des genres Wolterstorffina et Nectophrynoides d'Afrique. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun 11: 93-119.

Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Poynton, J.C. 1998. Tanzanian bufonid diversity: preliminary findings. Herpetological Journal 8: 3-6.

Poynton, J.C. 2003. Altitudinal species turnover in southern Tanzania shown by anurans: some zoogeographical considerations. Systematics and Biodiversity 1: 117-126.


Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Nectophrynoides viviparus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54846A16950142. . Downloaded on 01 July 2016.
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