Nectophrynoides vestergaardi 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Nectophrynoides vestergaardi
Species Authority: Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004
Common Name(s):
English Vestergaard's Forest Toad
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-12-12
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N.
Contributor(s): Msuya, C.A., Menegon, M. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Morris, E.J. & Luedtke, J.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is limited to 1,004 km², with an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 225 km², it is known from three threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in the West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Endangered (EN)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania, where it has been recorded in the Shume-Magamba Forest Reserve, the Mazumbai Forest Reserve, and the Ambangulu Tea Estate between 1,230 and 2,000 m asl. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,004 km², with an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 225 km², which relates to the area of the forest fragments. It is understood to occur in three threat-defined locations.
Countries occurrence:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 225
Number of Locations: 3
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1230
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species can be relatively common at specific sites within its range. However, its population is severely fragmented as more than 50% occurs in fragments on different sides of the mountain between which there is little to no dispersal and, due to ongoing habitat loss, its population is presumed to be decreasing.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: All records are from montane forest, including in the ecotone between forest and ericaceous vegetation. It is a terrestrial species and its breeding strategy is unknown, but it is assumed to be ovoviviparous like other members of its genus, with internal fertilization giving birth to tiny toadlets.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is a long history of habitat modification in the West Usambaras, initiated by the planting of tea and coffee plantations. Agricultural activities continue to the present day in addition to wood extraction and expanding human settlements.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in the Mazumbai, Baga II, Shume-Magamba Forest Reserves in the West Usambara Mountains. All of these forest reserves require further protection and additional habitat protection outside these areas is also needed. The effects of habitat disturbance on this species need to be investigated, as well as its natural history. This species is listed under CITES Appendix 1.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Nectophrynoides vestergaardi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54845A16937159. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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