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Epidalea calamita 

Scope: Global
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Epidalea calamita
Species Authority: (Laurenti, 1768)
Common Name(s):
English Natterjack Toad
Spanish Sapo Corredor
Synonym(s):
Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Beja, P., Kuzmin, S., Beebee, T., Denoel, M., Schmidt, B., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ananjeva, N.B., Orlov, N.L., Nyström, P., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Bosch, J., Miaud, C., Tejedo, M., Lizana, M. & Martinez Solano, I.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because the total population is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in southern, western and northern Europe, ranging from Portugal and Spain, north to Denmark, southern Sweden, and as far east as western Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia and Estonia. There are isolated populations in southwestern Ireland and scattered parts of the United Kingdom (north to southwestern Scotland). It occurs from sea level to almost 2,540 m asl (in Spain).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Germany; Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2540
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species is locally abundant across much of its range, especially in southern Europe. It is much more localized and is declining in the northern parts of its range (e.g. in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Estonia). While generally declining in Poland, a large breeding population of about 500 individuals was recorded in 2002 in the Slowinski National Park. It is considered generally rare in eastern parts of its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is generally found in open and unshaded light sandy soils of coastal dunes, lowland heaths, semi-desert, high mountains, pine forest glades, gardens, parks, agricultural fields, sand and gravel quarries and meadows. In the daytime these animals hide in heaps of stones, in sandy soil and under debris. Spawning, followed by a short larval development period, takes place in sunny shallow temporary pools and lagoons. This is a pioneering species in much of southern Europe, sometimes temporarily colonizing new ponds; it is very much less adaptable in northern Europe.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are loss of specialized habitats (such as heaths and dunes) by natural encroachment of scrub and woodland; afforestation, acidification of breeding pools, agricultural development, infilling of breeding sites (such as temporary pools and sand and gravel quarries); increased mechanization of sand and gravel extraction and infrastructure development for tourism. In some parts of its range (e.g. in UK and Spain) chytridiomycosis is a threat. The species is considered vulnerable to climate change, particularly in southern Europe.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive, and is protected by national and sub national legislation throughout much of its range. The species is listed in many regional, national and sub-national Red Data Books and Lists, and is present in many protected areas. A re-introduction program in the UK has successfully established at least six, and perhaps quite a few more populations (Denton et al. 1997, Zippel 2005).

Citation: Beja, P., Kuzmin, S., Beebee, T., Denoel, M., Schmidt, B., Tarkhnishvili, D., Ananjeva, N.B., Orlov, N.L., Nyström, P., Ogrodowczyk, A., Ogielska, M., Bosch, J., Miaud, C., Tejedo, M., Lizana, M. & Martinez Solano, I. 2016. Epidalea calamita. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54598A86640094. . Downloaded on 29 July 2016.
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