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Cypripedium margaritaceum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA ORCHIDALES ORCHIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Cypripedium margaritaceum
Species Authority: Franch.
Common Name(s):
English Farges' Cypripedium
Synonym(s):
Cypripedium daliense S.C.Chen & J.L.Wu

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-08-29
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Justification:

Cypripedium margaritaceum is very rare and very local with a scattered and restricted distribution in south west Sichuan and north west Yunnan in China.

The trend of the population is decreasing, the species often occurs as solitary plants or in very small groups, the abundance of the species has been significantly reduced during the recent decades due to many threats especially collection, trampling, weak recovery, ecological disturbance, deforestation, tourism, exploitation for horticultural and infrastructure development.

The estimated area of occupancy of the species is about 150 km2, the number of mature individuals is low with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of the habitats in both locations. Th species is therefore assessed as Endangered (EN).

History:
2004 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Cypripedium margaritaceum is endemic to China. The species is confined to southwest Sichuan and northwest Yunnan. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 45,000 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 150 km². The species occurs between 2,500 and 3,600 m altitude.


Sources: Chen and Cribb 1994; Cribb 1992, 1997; Cribb and Sandison; 1998, efloras 2008; eMonocot 2013; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Li 2005; Li and Zhou 2005; Sing-chi and Zhong-Jian 2005; Singchi et al. 2012.

Countries:
Native:
China (Sichuan, Yunnan)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Cypripedium margaritaceum is a very rare, uncommon and very local slipper orchid species with a very restricted distribution, which occurs often as solitary plants or in very small groups, the abundance of the species has been significantly reduced in recent decades, the population density is low and the trend of the population is decreasing. However, as far as population is concerned no precise count has ever been made but the species often forms more or less loose groups and very small colonies of less than 10 individuals.


Sources: Chen and Cribb 1994; Cribb 1992, 1997; Cribb and Sandison; 1998, efloras 2008; eMonocot 2013; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Li 2005; Li and Zhou 2005; Sing-chi and Zhong-Jian 2005; Singchi et al. 2012.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Cypripedium margaritaceum occurs in a variety of habitats from open forests, grassy slopes, banks, open deciduous and mixed woodland on limestone and moraines. The species grows on moist well-drained soils, steep places in humus rich or organic soils, from acid to alkaline soils. The species prefers light to deep shaded habitats and flowers in June and early July. 


Sources: Chen and Cribb 1994; Cribb 1992, 1997; Cribb and Sandison; 1998, efloras 2008; eMonocot 2013; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Li 2005; Li and Zhou 2005; Sing-chi and Zhong-Jian 2005; Singchi et al. 2012.

Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Cypripedium margaritaceum is an ornamental plant used for horticulture, but the cultivation is very difficult.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Cypripedium margaritaceum is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as rocky high altitude, nutrient availability, steep places and shaded habitats.

Cypripedium margaritaceum is native only to high mountain habitats and it is easily damaged by early frosts in the spring. The species is under numerous anthropogenic threats including the exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection, trampling, weak recovery, regional and international trade, ecological disturbance, degradation of the habitat due mainly to tourism, leisure activities, urbanization, infrastructure development, management activities, recreation activities by direct effect (e.g., destruction of plants) and indirect effect (e.g., alteration of habitat).

Cypripedium margaritaceum is threatened more generally by climate change, drought, deforestation, random cutting and soil erosion.


Sources: Chen and Cribb 1994; Cribb 1992, 1997; Cribb and Sandison; 1998, efloras 2008; eMonocot 2013; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Li 2005; Li and Zhou 2005; Sing-chi and Zhong-Jian 2005; Singchi et al. 2012.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

However, the following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium margaritaceum:

- Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.

- Knowledge of the optimal growth conditions is required. Such information may help to develop effective ways to restore the natural habitat of the species

- Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.

- Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites.

- Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).

 - Sympathetic management of isolated populations.

- Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing populations with respect to ongoing management practices.

- Learning about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species with the goal of establishing successful protocols for symbiotic ex situ propagation and cultivation.

- Further research on the life cycle and ecology of the species.

- Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.

- Raise public awareness.

- Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.

- Estimate the population size and study their dynamics. 


Citation: Rankou, H. 2014. Cypripedium margaritaceum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 July 2014.
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