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Ossiculum aurantiacum 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Ossiculum aurantiacum P.J.Cribb & Laan

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2017-06-23
Assessor(s): Simo, M., Stévart, T., Pollard, B.J., Darbyshire, I. & Droissart, V.
Reviewer(s): Lowry, P., Schatz, G.E., Onana, J.-M. & Rankou, H.
Justification:

The extent of occurrence (EOO) of Ossiculum aurantiacum is estimated to be 19,948.1  km2, which falls within the thresholds for listing as Vulnerable under criterion B1, whereas the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be 28 km2, which falls within the thresholds for listing as Endangered under criterion B2. The species is known from three subpopulations in Cameroon and Republic of the Congo, and these three subpopulations represent five locations (sensu IUCN 2016), which fall within the thresholds for Endangered under criterion B2a. In unprotected areas, the habitat of O. aurantiacum is currently impacted by human disturbance. The recent construction of a road along the border of the Mungo River Forest Reserve provides greater accessibility into the species location and may result in intensification of forest clearance outside of the reserve's boundary and encroachment of small-scale cash-crop agriculture into the reserve. There is continuing clearance of the lowland forest. The main threats to the species are timber exploitation (in the north of the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary), cocoa, plantain and banana plantations (at the Mungo River Forest Reserve) and shifting agriculture at small-scale and oil palm plantations (in the east of the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary). These activities are gradually transforming the species habitat. It is projected that this degradation will continue in the future and that this ongoing loss of its habitat results in a continuing decline in mature individuals of the species. Considering all these facts, O. aurantiacum is assigned a status of Endangered (EN) B2ab(iii,v).

Following the first assessment of this species by Pollard and Darbyshire (2004) this species was reassessed as Critically Endangered (CR) under criterion A2c by Pollard (2011), based on the suspected decline of its population. However, while the latter assessment was being prepared for submission for publication on The IUCN Red List, this species was re-examined and consensus was reached on the revised assessment of Endangered as presented above.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Ossiculum aurantiacum is endemic to Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo. The species occurs between 240 to 600 m elevation. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 19,948.1 km2 while the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be 28 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Cameroon; Congo
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:28Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:19948.1
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:5Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Lower elevation limit (metres):240
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

The population of Ossiculum aurantiacum is currently thought to be declining because the species habitat is threatened by human activities such as timber exploitation (north of the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary), cocoa plantations (Mungo River Forest Reserve) and shifting agriculture at small-scale (east of the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary). The number of individuals of the species is not known and cannot be estimated since the species is epiphyte.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Ossiculum aurantiacum is an epiphyte of lowland evergreen rainforest. It was collected on Kola and young cocoa trees, and mainly on the upper part of the canopy of large trees (Duguetia staudtii, Klainedoxa gabonensis, Klainedoxa microphylla, Scotellia sp.).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is not known to be used or traded, however, specialist collectors with an interest in collecting and growing epiphytes might be interested in the species hence the range maps are not published here.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The habitat of Ossiculum aurantiacum  is threatened by human activities such as timber exploitation (north of the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary), cocoa, plantain and banana plantations (Mungo River Forest Reserve) and shifting agriculture at small-scale and oil palm plantations (east of the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Ossiculum aurantiacum occurs within two protected areas: the Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary in Cameroon and the Odzala National Park in Republic of the Congo. The species habitat there appears well managed. Ossiculum aurantiacum is also in cultivation in the Yaoundé shadehouse. However, urgent action is required to address the issues of timber extraction from the Mungo River area, and to protect the existing forest reserves from illegal encroachment of agricultural activity. Intensive orchid survey should be carried out for the CRES Orchid Programme at Mungo and other nearby lowland areas, such as the adjacent Loum Forest Reserve.

Citation: Simo, M., Stévart, T., Pollard, B.J., Darbyshire, I. & Droissart, V. 2018. Ossiculum aurantiacum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T46364A87750844. . Downloaded on 18 July 2018.
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