|Scientific Name:||Plectropomus leopardus|
|Species Authority:||(Lacepède, 1802)|
Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède, 1802)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cornish, A. & Kiwi, L.K. (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group)|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Samoilys, M. (Grouper & Wrasse Red List Authority)|
The Leopard Coral Grouper is declining on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (Ayling et al. 2000), and this problem is further aggravated by the increasing harvest in that country. Other countries show declining landings, implying that populations may be decreasing. Although catches in eastern Australia have increased significantly, catch rates have decreased. The increasing trend observed in Philippines may be due to the lack of management and that juveniles are now caught and grown out; where heavily taken, the capture of P. leopardus is considered to be unsustainable (Padilla et al. 2003). Due to the declining trend of populations in different countries, the fish may be classified as Near Threatened and with more data may need to be reclassified as Vulnerable under criterion A2d. (Follow the link below to see a summary of regional status and catch data).
Plectropomus leopardus is found mainly in the western Pacific from southern Japan to Australia (Queensland and Western Australia), and eastward to the Caroline Islands and Fiji.
The species aggregates for spawning to form a group of around 60 to 130 in Australia (Samoilys 1997), 20 to 30 in eastern Malaysia (T. Daw pers. comm. 2003). Five spawning sites are known from Sabah, Malayasia (SCRFA 2003). Of these, four were still present in 2001/2002 while the fifth had disappeared reportedly due to destruction of the reef from cyanide fishing.
In Fiji, small groupings of the species are found regularly in certain seasons and the groupings tend to be somewhat dispersed particularly along the outer reef edge and well developed inner reefs. Fishers report that they tend to catch more of this fish when it has eggs (SCRFA 2003).
Native:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; China; Fiji; Hong Kong; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Tonga; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population estimates by mark-capture data ranges from 1,890 to 2,134 fish for the reef area around Lizard Island (750,966 m²), equivalent to 2.6 fish 1,000 m², whereas it is about 3,988 (5.3 fish 1,000 m²) when estimated by Underwater Visual Census (Zeller and Russ 2000, Samoilys and Carlos 2001). On the Great Barrier Reef, P. leopardus is considered naturally common with densities ranging from 3.5 to 9.0 fish 1,000 m² (Ayling et al. 2000). In contrast the species is relatively uncommon in Solomon Islands, Fiji and Papua Guinea (maximum densities of two fish 1,000 m², but generally less than one fish 1,000 m² (Samoilys et al. 1995).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Larvae are pelagic (Kailola et al. 1993); juveniles live in demersal shallow water in reef habitats, especially around coral rubble (Doherty et al. 1994), whereas adults inhabit coral reefs (Kailola et al. 1993).
Estimates for average size at first reproduction of the fish ranges from 20–25 cm FL (Samoilys 2000) to 32–36 cm FL depending on differing histological criteria (Ferreira 1995). Aggregations occur around new moon (Samoilys 1997) or the full moon (J. Pet, pers. comm.: Komodo National Park, Indonesia) depending on location. In the Cairns area of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, aggregations are found from September to November (Samoilys 1997). An increase in fish density of up to 19 fold (maximum density: 75 fish/1,000 m²).can occur above the level recorded outside the aggregation period (average non-aggregation density: 6.5 fish/1,000 m²).
Aggregations occur around new moon from September to November (Samoilys 1997). An increase in fish density of up to 19 fold (maximum density: 75 fish/1,000 m²) can occur above the level recorded outside the aggregation period (average non-aggregation density: 6.5 fish/1,000 m². It is suggested that P. leopardus depends on aggregations sites on their home reef for reproductive activities (Zelle 1998).
Overfishing is probably the main threat to the species.
One major spawning aggregation of P. leopardus disappeared on the Great Barrier Reef probably due to targeted fishing (Samoilys et al. 2001). Catch rates have declined in several areas in the last decade, most notably after introduction of the live reef food fish trade.
In some areas in the Philippines, the species forms a single species fishery for the live reef fish export market. Catch and export figures reveal a fishery that was once large but has declined rapidly (43% over four years), average fish size has declined, catch rates appear low, and mortality estimates are high (Padilla et al. 2003). In addition, fisher surveys found that more fish were taken when they had eggs, and fish were noted by divers to be in clusters (SCRFA 2003); the fishery also targets immature fish when most mature size fish have gone and often grows out the immature fish to a larger, market, size in floating net pens – referred to as ‘mariculture’.
Aggregation sites are sometimes particularly targeted by fishers and enable elevated catch rates when fish are aggregated during reproduction.
Conservation action is mainly taken in the Great Barrier Reef. The minimum legal size limit of 38 cm TL is implemented (QFMA 1999) to prevent recruitment overfishing. Three nine-day closures during October–December (timed to coincide with Coral Trout spawning) are in place for the protection of fish spawning aggregations in the Great Barrier Reef (Turnbull and Samoilys 1997, Russell 2003, fishery authority website given in citations).
Around 20% of the reefs of the GBR are closed to fishing, and this is set to increase (GBRMPA web site).
Although there are many marine parks in Japan, no protected areas exist to protect groupers (A. Nakazono, pers. comm., 2003).
|Citation:||Cornish, A. & Kiwi, L.K. (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group) 2004. Plectropomus leopardus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 November 2014.|