Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Campanulales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana
Parent Species:
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-03-21
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M.
Reviewer(s): Chau, M.
Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Hawaiʻi and has an extent of occurrence of 4 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its area of occupancy is 4 km². Its distribution is severely limited, with just five mature plants occurring in a single subpopulation. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii), C2a(i,ii) and D.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 530 and 1,150 m elevation on the islands of Maui and Hawaiʻi. Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana is now only know from a single subpopulation with five mature plants on the island of Hawaiʻi.

Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):530
Upper elevation limit (metres):1150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


The taxon is extremely rare, with a total known population of five mature individuals in a single subpopulation.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:No
No. of subpopulations:1
All individuals in one subpopulation:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

The taxon is an epiphytic shrub or small tree found in Hawaiian wet forest.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, and predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly feral pigs, which degrade the habitat and harm the plants through predation, trampling, and rooting for food. Alien plants also threaten the species by altering its habitat and competing with it for moisture, nutrients, light, and space. Rats pose a threat to the species through predation of its plant parts and fruits; and introduced slugs and snails threaten the species by feeding on its leaves, stems, and seedlings. Since the species is epiphytic, it is threatened by wind and falling tree branches.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The single subpopulation does not occur in any protected area, and it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, but it is not known whether they have not yet produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.  

Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M. 2016. Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T44102A83796061. . Downloaded on 22 October 2016.
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