|Scientific Name:||Negaprion acutidens (Southeast Asia subpopulation)|
|Species Authority:||(Rüppell, 1837)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pillans, R. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., McAuley, R. & White, W.T. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Outside Australia, this species is heavily fished in unregulated and expanding inshore fisheries throughout its range, and this, together with its narrow habitat range and limited potential for recolonisation of heavily fished sites, leads to a global assessment of Vulnerable. Further, in Indonesia there has been little recent evidence of this species at fish markets although it was historically abundant. Widespread damage and destruction of coral reefs and mangrove habitats in parts of South East Asia are also cause for concern. In addition there are records of local extinctions in India and Thailand. This species is assessed as Endangered in South East Asia.
|Range Description:||Assessment restricted to Southeast Asia subpopulation only.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Occurs in tropical, shallow inshore and offshore waters near the bottom; often found on and around coral reefs and on sandy plateaus near coral, at depths down to at least 30 m (Compagno and Niem 1998). Often found inside coral lagoons but also on reef flats and reef edges (Stevens 1984). It is also known to occur around and within mangrove estuaries (W.White, pers.comm.). Out of 143 animals tagged at 43 sites by Stevens (1984), 19 individuals were recaptured (14.5%) of which 5 were caught more than once. These data showed that 52% of recoveries were made at the tagging site, 83% within 1 km of tagging site and 91% within 2 km. The average distance moved by individuals was 1.3 km (excluding those animals that did not move from tagging site) and the maximum distance traveled was 5 km.
Gestation period: 10 to 11 months
Reproductive periodicity: 2 years
Size at birth: 60 cm TL
Average litter size: 9.3 (6 to 12)
Size male maturity: 220 cm TL
Size female maturity: 220 cm TL
Max size: 300 cm TL
Growth rates, Juveniles: 12.5 to 15.5 cm/yr
Threats from inshore fisheries are high outside Australian waters, particularly Southeast Asia, where these sharks are captured by gillnets and longlines. They are particularly susceptible to local depletion due their very small habitat range and limited movement patterns (Stevens 1984). This species is also likely to be affected by habitat destruction, particularly in South East Asia. For example, extensive coral reef habitat destruction (pollution and dynamite fishing), in addition, this species is known to occur around and within mangrove estuaries, many of which have been deforested or are heavily populated by humans throughout its range (W. White, pers. comm.).
Although they are still recorded, albeit very infrequently within Indonesia (W. White, pers. comm.), evidence suggests N. acutidens was historically more abundant, and have not been seen for several years in some areas. For example, in a preliminary survey of market catches around Bali, no N. acutidens were recorded, and jaws held in the fisheries centre in Jakarta that were several years old were the only evidence that this species was once caught in the region (William White, pers. comm.). Furthermore, evidence of local extinctions in India and Thailand (L. J. V. Compagno, pers. comm.) indicates that this species is extremely susceptible to local inshore fisheries.
|Conservation Actions:||Currently there are no conservation measures in place for this species.|
|Citation:||Pillans, R. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003) 2003. Negaprion acutidens (Southeast Asia subpopulation). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|