Pinus bhutanica 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus bhutanica A.J.C.Grierson, D.G.Long & C.N.Page
Common Name(s):
English Bhutan Pine, Bhutan White Pine
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: This species was formerly not recognized as distinct from Pinus wallichiana and herbarium specimens belonging to P. bhutanica may remain unrecognized as the distinction is more in the habit (strongly pendulous leaves) and young shoots (not always collected). Some botanists regard it as a subspecies or variety of Pinus wallichiana. The identification of a seedling in China (Tibet) is therefore dubious, as seedling characters were not originally described from this species and no comparative study growing both species has been published.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-17
Assessor(s): Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
From observation of the species in Bhutan, India and Tibet (Xizang) there appears to be no significant decline in area of occupancy nor in population size or structure. Accordingly the species is listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from Bhutan; NE India: Arunachal Pradesh (Kameng district); and SW China: NW Yunnan, SE Xizang [Tibet]. The species occurs mixed with Pinus wallichiana in west Bhutan (Tinleygang) where the distinctions are very obvious between adjacent trees. Further east in Bhutan it occurs on small stands away from P. wallichiana.  In Arunachal Pradesh, both species occur in West Kameng, but by Anjaw district in the east only P. bhutanica is recorded.  In the lower Rong Chu valley near the confluence with the Yarlung Tsangpo (Yaluzangpo) it forms pure forests on steep cliff faces. It is also recorded from the Dulong (Taron or Kiukiang) valley of NW Yunnan. There is no formal identification from northern Kachin State in Myanmar [Burma] but it would be surprising, given the above distribution, if it were not present there. The extent of occurrence is beyond the threatened thresholds but the area of occupancy is estimated to be at least 700 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Bhutan; China (Tibet [or Xizang], Yunnan); India (Arunachal Pradesh)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:700
Lower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):2750
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Xizang [Tibet] the species occurs in small forest groups, with no evidence of any significant decline within the past three generations.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in a warm temperate zone, from circa 1,000 m a.s.l. in the Lohit valley in Anjaw district of Arunachal Pradesh to 2,300 m a.s.l. in the Rong Chu Valley in SE Xizang [Tibet], with reports down to 750 m and up to 2,750 m.  Associated species can include Pinus wallichiana (in the west), Pinus roxburghii (dry inner valleys) and various broadleaved trees. It has been reported from a variety of forest types, including secondary forest where logging has occurred.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):50

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The uses as a timber tree are unknown. In horticulture, Bhutan Pine has been introduced in the UK in 1979 and it now grows well in milder parts of England, Scotland and Ireland (Grimshaw and Bayton 2009: 590-591). However, it is still restricted to botanic gardens and arboreta despite its appealing habit and gracefully pendulous foliage.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is thought to be relatively widespread. It is reported to be harvested as part of a mixed timber resource, but there is no evidence of decline and new localities have recently been found in China (Yunnan, Gaoligong Mts.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Some subpopulations occur (partly) within protected areas such as the Khaling and Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuaries (Bhutan).

Citation: Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K. 2013. Pinus bhutanica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42555A2987778. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
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