Pinus pinea


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Pinus pinea
Species Authority: L.
Common Name/s:
English Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine, Italian Stone Pine
French Pin parasol, Pin pignon
Spanish Pino Piñonero

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-16
Assessor/s: Farjon, A.
Reviewer/s: Luscombe, D & Thomas, P.
The widespread occurrence of this species, partly due to past plantings in the Mediterranean, some of which cannot be verified as to indigenity with certainty, ensures it is not threatened with extinction globally.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Recorded from Mediterranean Europe and the Near East (doubtfully native in many areas of the eastern Mediterranean such as Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus and Greece, but impossible to confirm because introductions would be ancient).

France (Corsica); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sicilia); Portugal; Spain (Baleares)
Present - origin uncertain:
Albania; Cyprus; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Lebanon; Turkey
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is thought to be stable.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is primarily a pine of coastal areas in the Mediterranean, at elevations from sea level to 600 m, on coastal dunes and flats as well as on lower slopes of mountains and in the hills. Many present-day stands are the result of historic plantings, some going back to Roman times, and if managed well, these can have a natural understorey of maquis scrub or mixture with smaller broad-leaved trees. Mature trees have a thick, fire resistant bark and the massive cones take three years to mature and are serotinous or semi-serotinous. Seeds are nearly wingless and dispersed by birds (also eaten by rodents) or may scatter after fire burned off the undergrowth and its heat assisted in opening the cones. Pinus pinea is usually an emergent tree above shrubs (maquis) or in low, open forests; it can also occur with Pinus halepensis and in Quercus ilex maquis-woodland
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): A large dam project under construction is posed to eradicate a subpopulation in NE Turkey (D. Luscombe, pers. comm.. May 2012). Other localized threats include urban, residential and tourist related developments.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in many protected areas, within and without its (putative) natural range.
Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus pinea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 18 April 2014.
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