Encephalartos munchii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos munchii
Species Authority: R.A.Dyer & I.Verd.
Common Name(s):
English Munch's Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iv,v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Although reports from Capela (2006) indicate that there are more mature individuals than previously thought, the numbers are still low and it qualifies as Critically Endangered in terms of area of occupancy, extent of occurrence (about 3 km²), and the fact that the entire population occurs at one location. Included under criterion C despite estimates of ca. 296 plants in 2006, because ongoing collecting may have reduced numbers to <250.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Critically Endangered (CR)
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from the central western area of Mozambique, where it is found on Mount Zembe, about 20 km to the southwest of Chimoio. Recorded to occur at 1,000 to 1,100 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Number of Locations: 1
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1000
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population size was reported as 17 mature individuals at the time of the last assessment in 2003, and later reported to be possibly extinct in the wild by Goode (pers. comm.). Several collectors in South Africa claim to have tried to find plants without success. However, Capela (2006) reported that there were 296 adult or near-adult plants on the southeastern aspect of the mountain. In addition, 1,000 to 1,300 seedlings have been re-introduced to the habitat.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 17-296
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs on a granite dome called Mount Zembe. The dome is covered with tall grass, evergreen bush and large forest trees. Plants occur higher up and are found near streams in bush or among rocks and boulders.
Systems: Terrestrial
Generation Length (years): 70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has been affected by over-collecting for ornamental purposes. Reproductive failure may also be a problem as there are not many plants left in the wild.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos munchii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41895A10573291. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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