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Sus celebensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA SUIDAE

Scientific Name: Sus celebensis
Species Authority: Müller & Schlegel, 1843
Common Name(s):
English Sulawesi Warty Pig, Celebes Wild Boar, Celebes Warty Pig, Celebes Pig
French Sanglier De Célèbes
Synonym(s):
Sus floresianus (Heude, 1899)
Sus timoriensis Müller, 1840

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Burton, J. & Macdonald, A.A.
Reviewer(s): Leus, K. & Oliver, W. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread over-hunting and habitat loss through much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion A2cd.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: S. celebensis is a medium sized pig which is still found in abundance in central, east and south-east Sulawesi. It is now scarce in south and north-east Sulawesi and may be extinct on nearby Selayar Island. It also occurs as a native form on the adjacent islands of Buton, Muna, Kabeana, Peleng, Lembeh and on some of the Togian Islands (Burton and Macdonald 2006). As originally shown by Groves (1981), this species has also been truly domesticated and widely transported to other islands, where it has also often hybridized with S. scrofa, thus giving rise to a variety of introduced domestic and feral pig populations amongst the Indonesian the islands of Flores, Timor, Simeuleu, Seram, Buru and Nias Islands. Domesticated forms of S. celebensis can be seen on the islands of Roti and Sawu (Groves 1983, Bell 1987). Wild pigs from Halmahera, previously referred to as feral S. celebensis, have been shown to have greater genetic affinity to the New Guinea pigs (Larson et al. 2005).
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A recent island wide survey (Riley 2002) found no records of pigs in three areas in the north east peninsula of Sulawesi, and low densities in the central region of the island. Populations in both these regions appear to have been affected by demand for pig meat in Minahasa and Palu areas, respectively. While the south-east area had the highest population densities, the demand for pig meat locally was lowest. Densities ranged from 0.4-2.0 animals/km² (Panua Nature Reserve) in the north peninsula to 5.1-14.5 animals/km² (Tanjung Peropa Nature Reserve) in the south-east peninsula. A recent study in the latter site found densities in lowland forest to be 23.5 animals/km² (Jamaludin et al. in prep). This data highlights the increasing pressure from hunting on the pigs of Sulawesi, as reported elsewhere (Clayton et al. 1997, 2000; Lee et al. 2005).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Sulawesi Warty Pigs are reported to occur in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from rainforest and swamp, to open grasslands and agricultural areas, and at all altitudes up to moss forest (>2,500 m) (MacKinnon 1981), though they are less common at altitudes above 1,500 m asl (Burton in press). They usually live in groups of from one to six animals, but the social composition of these groups is incompletely known (Macdonald 1991; Macdonald et al, 1996). In one population (Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve) the sex ratio of adults was found to be 1:1.25 (n=25) and group size varies between 2 and 9, with an average of 5 individuals (n=16) (Jamalundin in prep). Groups generally consisted of 1-3 young, 1-2 subadults and 1-3 adults. They forage during the day, this activity being concentrated in the early morning and evening. Although roots, fallen fruit, leaves and young shoots constitute the bulk of their diet, invertebrates, small vertebrates and carrion are also eaten.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): S. celebensis does not have any important natural predators on Sulawesi and its offshore islands other than the reticulated python (Python reticulates). Changing land-use and hunting pressure have caused a reduction in its former range. This pig species is not considered threatened over much of its range at the present time (Burton and Macdonald 2006). However, wide scale deforestation for timber and conversion of land for agriculture, coupled with human population expansion and immigration have resulted in a marked contraction of its range in some places. In addition, resources are insufficient to enforce controls on hunting, and there are reports that subsistence and/or organized commercial hunting is continuing even within designated reserves and national parks (Smiet 1982, Blouch 1990). The high volume of trade in this species raises concerns about the sustainability of this current harvesting rate. Completion of the Trans-Sulawesi Highway (1980) probably increased importation of wildlife within and into North Sulawesi from the rest of the island. Data was recently collected from market surveys from northeast Sulawesi and road blocks on the Trans-Sulawesi Highway (Lee et al. 2005). In the study it was noted that "trade in the Sulawesi pig is alarmingly high for such a large-bodied animal". The expansion of human settlements also brings an increased threat of genetic contamination and/or disease to the wild pig populations. Future threats will include the loss of this species high genetic diversity through the decline into small isolated populations (Burton and Macdonald 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species occurs in some protected areas. Those where significant populations of warty pigs are found include Lore Lindu (2,310 km2), Bogani Nani-Wartabone (2,871 km2), Morowali (2,250 km2) and many other smaller sites. Within all of these areas the species is technically fully protected by law. A Wildlife Crimes Unit Program was developed for wildlife trade monitoring and law enforcement in North Sulawesi. This has been active since 2001, however, overall trade in wild mammals has increased by 30% during this time, mainly from unprotected species (Lee et al. 2005). This Unit cannot control the levels of trade in the warty pig because hunting of this species is not prohibited outside of protected areas. The species has only very rarely been kept in captivity outside its country of origin; and, as far as is known, pure-bred animals have never been produced in captivity (Burton and Macdonald 2006).

Citation: Burton, J. & Macdonald, A.A. 2008. Sus celebensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.
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