Phacochoerus africanus 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Phacochoerus africanus
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1788)
Common Name(s):
English Common Warthog, Warthog, Eritrean Warthog
French Phacochère Commun

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Cumming, D.H.M.
Reviewer(s): Leus, K. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Least Concern as the species is relatively widespread, abundant, and there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a significant population decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, occurring in scattered populations in West Africa eastwards to Ethiopia and then southwards in protected areas and unsettled, or very lightly settled, areas in East and southern Africa. Historically, P. africanus did not occur in the arid Karoo of South Africa where it was replaced by the extinct Cape Warthog P. aethiopicus aethiopicus (Cumming in press). The continuous expansion of the Sahel-zone has resulted in a marked contraction in the species’ former range in the north since the early 1980s, and accounts for its probable extinction in Niger (J. Newby, in Vercammen and Mason 1993).
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Possibly extinct:
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The overall number of warthog in southern Africa (Angola, Zambia, Tanzania and southwards) has been estimated at about 250,000 (Cumming 1999). Typical densities range between 1 and 10 per km² in protected areas (Cumming in press), but local densities of 77 per km² were found on short grass in Nakuru National Park (Radke 1991).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Confined to moist and dry African savanna grasslands, open bushlands and woodlands, usually within range of perennial surface water (Cumming in press). Although usually absent from forests, thickets, cool montane grasslands, and deserts and succulent steppes, the population in the Goda Mtns in Djibouti mainly occupies forested areas (Künzel et al. 2000; Cumming in press). Recorded to elevations of 3,500 m in the Ethiopian Highlands (Yalden et al. 1996).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no current major threats. However, the species is very susceptible to drought and hunting, which may result in localized extinctions.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Common Warthog is present in numerous protected areas across its extensive range.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Cumming, D. H. M. 1999. Study on the development of Transboundary Natural Resource Management Areas in Southern Africa - Environmental Context. Natural Resources, Land Use, and Conservation. Biodiversity Support Program. Washington, DC, USA.

Cumming, D.H.M. 2013. Phacochoerus africanus Common warthog. In: J.S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 54-60. Bloomsbury, London.

Künzel, T., Rayaleh, H.A. and Künzel, S. 2000. Status Assessment Survey on Wildlife in Djibouti. Final Report. Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations (Z.S.C.S.P.) and Office National du Tourisme et de l’Artisanat (O.N.T.A.).

Radke, R. 1991. Monographie des warzenschweines (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). Bongo, Berlin 18: 119-134.

Vercammen, P. and Mason, D. R. 1993. The Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus and P. aethiopicus). In: W. L. R. Oliver (ed.), Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 75-84. IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group - IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Yalden, D.W., Largen, M.J., Kock, D. and Hillman, J.C. 1996. Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 7. Revised checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology 9(1): 73-164.

Citation: Cumming, D.H.M. 2008. Phacochoerus africanus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41768A10535705. . Downloaded on 31 August 2016.
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