Aetomylaeus nichofii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Rajiformes Myliobatidae

Scientific Name: Aetomylaeus nichofii
Species Authority: (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Common Name(s):
English Banded Eagle Ray

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2d+3d+4d ver 3.1
Year Published: 2003
Date Assessed: 2003-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Kyne, P.M., Compagno, L.J.V. & Bennett, M.B. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)
Reviewer(s): Fowler, S. & Cavanagh, R.D. (Shark Red List Authority)
Aetomylaeus nichofii is a wide-ranging but rare, little known, Indo-Pacific eagle ray. It is marketed throughout its range, except in Australia. South East Asian market catches are low and have declined, and large regions of the species' range have been subject to intensive (and increasing) trawling for a considerable time. Given actual (and increasing) levels of exploitation, rarity, low fecundity and global declines in catches of batoids the species is listed as Vulnerable (VU A2d+3d+4d). Research urgently needs to address biology and levels of abundance.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Aetomylaeus nichofii is an Indo-West Pacific species, ranging from Japan to Australia and west to Pakistan. There are single records from the Maldives and from southern Mozambique, indicating that the species may have a wider distribution in the Indian Ocean than currently thought. In Australia, the species is recorded in tropical waters from Bonaparte Archipelago, Western Australia to Hervey Bay, Queensland, including waters of the Northern Territory (Last and Stevens 1994, Compagno and Last 1999, Kyne et al. in prep.).
Countries occurrence:
Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Malaysia; Myanmar; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Currently there are no available data on populations.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A demersal species on the continental shelf inshore to at least 70 m. Born at about 17 cm disc width (DW) and reaches at least 64 cm DW. Viviparous with litters of up to four young (Last and Stevens 1994, Compagno and Last 1999). Nothing else is known of this species' biology.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is a major commercial eagle ray that is marketed throughout the region, except in northern Australia. It is naturally rare and has declined due to heavy trawling in southeast Asia since the 1960s. The species is rarely seen in both Thai and Indonesian market catches, where the Gulf of Thailand and Indonesian waters are subject to increasing trawling. It was previously more common in Thai markets. In Australian waters the species is rare with few museum records and ranges over moderately trawled areas (east coast of Queensland, Gulf of Carpentaria). The species may also be associated with coral reefs, which are under increasing pressure throughout most of its tropical range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no current conservation measures in place for A. nichofii. The species may be protected in small areas of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia, although commercial fishing is still permitted in the majority of the park.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability: Unknown  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Compagno, L.J.V. and Last, P.R. 1999. Myliobatidae. Eagle rays. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds) FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 3. Batoid Fishes, Chimaeras and Bony Fishes Part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). pp. 1511-1519. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.

IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at:

Kyne, P.M., Johnson, J.W., Courtney, A.J. and Bennett, M.B. 2005. New biogeographical information on Queensland chondrichthyans. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 50: 321-327.

Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Second Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

TRAFFIC International. 1996. The World Trade in Sharks: A Compendium of TRAFFIC's Regional Studies Volumes 1 and 2.

Citation: Kyne, P.M., Compagno, L.J.V. & Bennett, M.B. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003). 2003. Aetomylaeus nichofii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T41717A10546777. . Downloaded on 29 June 2016.
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