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Phocoena dioptrica

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA PHOCOENIDAE

Scientific Name: Phocoena dioptrica
Species Authority: (Lahille, 1912)
Common Name/s:
English Spectacled Porpoise
French Marsouin De Lahille, Marsouin À Lunettes
Spanish Marsopa De Anteojos
Synonym/s:
Australophocaena dioptrica (Lahille, 1912)
Australophocaena dioptrica Lahille, 1912.
Taxonomic Notes: This species was briefly considered to be in its own genus, Australophocaena, and was listed in the 1996-2002 Red Lists as Australophocaena dioptrica. However, due to findings of recent genetic and morphometric studies, it is now again placed in the genus Phocoena (Rosel et al. 1995, Perrin et al. 2000).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B.
Reviewer/s: Rojas-Bracho, L. & Smith, B.D. (Cetacean Red List Authority)
Justification:
This is a very poorly known species, and there is a lack of information to make an assessment of its extinction risk.
History:
1996 Data Deficient
1996 Data Deficient
1994 Insufficiently Known (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Previously known primarily from the southern coast of eastern South America, from Uruguay and southern Brazil to Tierra del Fuego, this species is now known from offshore in the southern Hemisphere (Brownell and Clapham 1999). There are records from the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Kerguelen Islands, Heard Island, Macquarie Island, and the Auckland Islands. Although rarely seen at sea (there are only a few dozen live sightings), this information suggests that the spectacled porpoise’s range may be circumpolar in the sub-Antarctic zone (with water temperatures of at least 1-10°C) (Goodall 2002). The southernmost sighting is from 64°34'S.
Countries:
Native:
Argentina; Australia (Macquarie Is., Tasmania); Brazil; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Southern Territories (Kerguelen); Heard Island and McDonald Islands; New Zealand (Antipodean Is.); South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Uruguay
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – Antarctic; Atlantic – southwest; Indian Ocean – Antarctic; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no estimates of abundance.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Spectacled porpoises seem to occur only in cold temperate waters. Although they have been observed or incidentally caught in coastal waters and reported from rivers and channels, their habitat is thought to be primarily oceanic. Where recorded, water temperatures associated with sightings ranged from 5.5°C to 9.5°C (Brownell and Clapham, 1999).

Only four stomachs have been examined; the contents included anchovies and stomatopods (mantis shrimp).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Spectacled porpoises may be taken deliberately for crab bait off southern Chile. The effects of these catches on spectacled porpoise subpopulations are not known (Jefferson et al.1993).

Like all phocoenoids, spectacled porpoises are caught in gillnets. At least 34 animals were killed incidentally between 1975 and 1990 in coastal gill nets set in Tierra del Fuego, and there was a co-occurrence of strandings and fishing activity in southeastern Chile, suggesting additional undocumented mortality from this source. Some mortality of spectacled porpoises was also reported from bottom and mid-water trawls off the coast of Chubut, Argentina (Brownell and Clapham, 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES.

Estimates of abundance are needed as well as information on direct and incidental takes.
Citation: Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. 2008. Phocoena dioptrica. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.
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