Ursus arctos 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Ursidae

Scientific Name: Ursus arctos
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Brown Bear, Grizzly Bear
French Ours brun
Spanish Oso Pardo

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-02-02
Assessor(s): Michel, S., Proctor, M., McLellan, B. & Huber, D.
Reviewer(s): Garshelis, D.
Contributor(s): Ambarli, H., Ararat, K., Aryal, A., Badamjav, L., Batmunkh, M., Can, O., Davletbakov, A., Esipov, A., Galbreath, G., Ghaemi, R., Gong, J., Gutleb, B., Han, S., Harris, R., Kaczensky, P., Kubanichbek, J., Lortkipanidze, B., Lukarevskiy, V., Mano, T., Moheb, Z., Nawaz, M.A., Oromov, B., Paczkowski, J., Puchkovskiy, S., Reynolds, H., Saidov, A., Sathyakumar, S., Sato, Y., Vaisfeld, M. & Xu, A.
Justification:

The range of the Brown Bear has historically declined in North America, Europe, and Asia, and the species has been extirpated in North Africa. However, it remains widespread across three continents, and is still one of the world’s most widely distributed terrestrial mammals. Globally the population remains large, and is not significantly declining and may be increasing in some areas (Swenson et al. 1998, Schwartz et al. 2006, Mace et al. 2012, Kaczensky et al. 2013, Chapron et al. 2014). There are many small, isolated populations that are in jeopardy of extirpation, but others, under more protection and management, are expanding.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

The Brown Bear is the most widely distributed ursid. It once ranged across a large portion of western North America, including northern Mexico. There is also some evidence of sporadic occurrence (after retreat of the Wisconsin ice sheet) within the eastern half of the continent (Guilday 1968). Populations on the Ungava Peninsula may have extended to the Atlantic Ocean (Loring and Spiess 2007). They also ranged throughout Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and across North Africa. A history of prolonged overexploitation in Europe stretching back centuries resulted in the elimination of brown bears from many countries. The date of their extirpation from North Africa is uncertain, but they may have existed as late as the 1500s in the Sinai of Egypt (Manlius 1998) and mid-1800s in Algeria and Morocco (Hamdine et al. 1998). During the 20th century, Brown Bears (called Grizzly Bears in interior North America) were intentionally extirpated in Mexico (≈1960), a large portion of southwestern U.S. (Brown 1985, Mattson and Merrill 2002), and most of the Canadian prairies. Bears have been rare in the Middle East throughout the 1900s, and were believed to have been extirpated by the mid-1950s; however, recent sightings of tracks and a photo of a bear in western Syria, near the Lebanon border, suggests either a relict population, vagrants from Turkey, or released captive animals  (Garshelis et al. 2015).

Presently, Brown Bears occupy approximately 5,000,000 km² of the northwestern portion of North America, 1,200,000 km² of Europe (excluding Russia), and much of northern Asia. Resident populations are known to exist in 45 range countries. The largest numbers exist in Russia, the U.S. (Alaska), and Canada. Many populations in Europe and the more southerly portions of Asia and North America are small and isolated (Servheen et al. 1999, Swenson et al. 2000, Kaczensky et al. 2013). Very small numbers of brown bears still remain in several Asian countries such as Iraq and Nepal (Gurung 2004, Ridings 2006, Aryal et al. 2012). In Europe, Andorra was reoccupied in 2003 from bears reintroduced into the French Pyrenees. A few wandering individuals are periodically crossing into Switzerland from a reintroduced population in northern Italy, and into Lithuania from Latvia and Belarus, but not enough as yet to be considered as occupied range in these countries.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nepal; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Tajikistan; Turkey; Ukraine; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan
Possibly extinct:
Bhutan; Lebanon
Regionally extinct:
Algeria; Belgium; Denmark; Egypt; Germany; Hungary; Ireland; Israel; Jordan; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Mexico; Moldova; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; San Marino; Tunisia; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:24000000
Number of Locations:44
Upper elevation limit (metres):5000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

The total number of brown bears on earth is estimated to exceed 200,000. Reliable population estimates (derived mainly from mark-recapture or resight, and modifications thereof) exist for several areas in North America and Europe (Miller et al. 1997, Swenson et al. 2000, Bellemain et al. 2005, Mowat et al. 2005, Proctor et al. 2010, 2012, Mowat et al. 2013), but few areas in Asia. Russia has the largest number of brown bears, believed to exceed 100,000, while estimates in the U.S. (mainly in Alaska) are around 33,000, Canada 25,000, and Europe (excluding Russia) 15,400. Whereas the species is relatively abundant in more northern parts of its distribution, the southern portions of the range are highly fragmented, with many small populations. In North America, the southern fringe has isolated populations ranging in size from near 700 bears in and around Yellowstone National Park (Haroldson et al. 2013) to approximately 25 individuals in the Cabinet Mountains of Montana (Proctor et al. 2004, Kendall et al. 2016) and even less, likely <10 bears, in some southern areas of British Columbia.

In Europe, Brown Bears occur in 22 countries. Based on the existing data on distribution, as well as a range of geographical, ecological, social and political factors these can be clustered into10 populations (Chapron et al. 2014): Scandinavian, Karelian, Baltic, Carpathian, Dinaric-Pindos, Eastern Balkan, Alpine, Abruzzo, Cantabrian, and Pyrenean. Based on reported and updated census data, the largest population is the Carpathian population (>8,000 bears), followed by the Scandinavian and Dinaric-Pindos populations (> 3,400 and 3,040 bears, respectively). The other populations are much smaller ranging from several hundred (e.g., Baltic ~700, Cantabrian ~200) to less than one hundred (e.g. Alps ~37 bears). Compared to the last survey, which included data up to 2005 (Bear Online Information System for Europe, BOIS), the Scandinavian, Dinaric-Pindos, and Cantabrian populations have recorded a clear increase. The other populations remained stable. The perceived decrease in the Eastern Balkan population is likely due to new monitoring techniques. All population ranges have been relatively stable or slightly expanding. In the Alpine population the loss of the central Austrian segment in the last decade was counter-balanced by the expansion of the north Italian segment in Trentino, due to translocations from Slovenia. The Pyrenean population also grew because of translocations from Slovenia (Kaczensky et al. 2013).

Small populations of Brown Bears are also scattered across many portions of Asia, but relatively little is known of numbers or degree of connectivity. In Pakistan there are an estimated 15-30 animals in an isolated population in the Hindu Kush Range (M. A. Nawaz, pers. comm., 2014). Another 130–220 bears are estimated to occur in what is thought to be an isolated population in the Himalaya Mountains of Pakistan and India (Sathyakumar et al. 2012, Abbas et al. 2015). There is another population of bears in the Karakoram-Pamir Mountains of Pakistan and these are likely joined across the Wakhan corridor and the Pamirs of Afghanistan, west of the Taklimakan Desert to the Hissaro-Alai and Pamirs population in southern Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In China, brown bears exist in sparse, poorly defined populations in the west and also in the northeast, with guesstimates of ~6,000 and ~1,000 in each of these regions, respectively (Gong and Harris 2006). Three GPS-collared bears in the Sanjiangyuan Region of Tibet, two male and one female with cubs, had home ranges of >7,000 km² and 2,200 km² respectively; these expansive home ranges suggest connectivity (but low density) within the dry, high mountains and plateaus of Tibet. A much more dense population on Hokkaido, Japan may have 2,200 or more Brown Bears, although even there, where significant information has been collected through research and sport harvest returns, reliable population estimates are not available (Mano 2006). There appears to be several isolated populations in the Middle East including bears in the Elburz and Zagros Mountains of Iran and bordering areas in Iraq (Kurdistan), and what is thought to be several isolated populations in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia. Perhaps the most isolated Brown Bear population in Asia is found in the Gobi desert of southern Mongolia and along the northern China border (currently 21‒29 bears; Tumendemberel et al. 2015).

In total, 44 subpopulations of Brown Bear have been identified globally; most occur in the southern portions of their circumpolar distribution across the northern hemisphere. Because many of these subpopulations are small, isolated, and in need of conservation attention, they have been assessed individually using the IUCN Red List criteria for isolated populations following the guidance of Gärdenfors et al. (2001) and IUCN (2012) (see the Supplementary Material attached to this document).

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:110000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Brown Bears occupy a great variety of habitats from dry Asian steppes to Arctic shrublands to temperate rain forests. Their range overlaps that of both the American Black Bear (U. americanus) and Asiatic Black Bear (U. thibetanus), and also slightly that of the Polar Bear (U. maritimus). Elevationally they range from sea level to 5,000 m (Sathyakumar 2006). They occupy a greater diversity of habitats than any other species of bear and also exploit a large variety of food items. In terms of diet, they fall between the mainly plant-dependent ursids and the carnivorous polar bear (Mattson 1998, Sacco and Van Valkenburgh 2004). In North America, Brown Bears (Grizzly Bears) are more carnivorous where ungulates (especially in Arctic areas) or spawning salmon (coastal areas) are abundant (Mowat and Heard 2006). The productivity and density of brown bears varies enormously, corresponding with the productivity of their habitats and availability of salmon. Coastal areas of North America and Eastern Russia, with concentrations of spawning salmon, have high densities (>100 bears per 1,000 km²) of Brown Bears (Miller et al. 1997, Seryodkin 2006) with high reproductive rates (Hilderbrand et al. 1999). Deciduous and mixed forests of the Dinaric and Carpathian mountain ranges of Eastern Europe also host high bear densities with high reproductive rates (Kusak and Huber 1998, Frković et al. 2001). More moderate densities of bears (20-50 bears per 1,000 km²) occur across the interior mountain ranges of North America (McLellan 1994, Schwartz et al. 2003, McLellan 2011), Europe, and Asia where they forage on a great variety of grasses, herbs, roots, berries, nuts, as well as animal matter such as insects, mammals, and fish if available. Moderate densities of bears are also found across portions of the boreal forests of North American, Asia and Scandinavia (Bellemain et al. 2005). Lower densities (5‒15 bears per 1,000 km²) are found in dry, desert-like areas, alpine and sub-alpine areas, as well as areas where habitat availability and numbers of bears have been reduced by high human and domestic livestock densities (Nawaz 2007); however, in most of these areas (e.g., northern India, western China) density estimates are not available.

Breeding occurs during April to July but implantation of the blastocyst is delayed until late autumn. Cubs, usually in litters of 1 to 3 (rarely 4 or 5), are born in January or early February when the mother is hibernating. In North America, female bears generally have their first litters at 5 to 8 years of age and have litters every three or four years thereafter (Schwartz et al. 2003). In some areas of Europe, however, females generally have their first litter at least one year earlier, and produce litters every two years (Swenson et al. 2000, Frković et al. 2001). At the other extreme, brown bears in northern Pakistan produced litters that average only 1.3 cubs every 5.7 years, on average (Nawaz et al. 2008).

Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Where Brown Bears exist in a large, contiguous population, they are sometimes hunted for sport or killed for control purposes, and rates may sometimes be unsustainable at least over the short term (Lamb et al. submitted, McLellan 2015, McLellan et al. submitted). Estimates of sustainable exploitation are hampered by the difficulty and expense of obtaining reliable estimates of population size, natural mortality, and reproductive rates. Most countries do not have the resources to develop and implement adequate monitoring programs and sustainable management plans for brown bears. Moreover, even with such plans in place, illegal or unreported kill may equal or exceed the legal and supposedly sustainable kill (McLellan et al. 1999, McLellan 2015). This is apparently occurring in the Russian Far East and China, where brown bears are poached for the commercial trade in gall bladders and paws (Seryodkin 2006, Servheen 2013, Burgess et al. 2014). In portions of Alaska, the management goal is to reduce bear populations to encourage moose and caribou populations to expand for the benefit of hunters (Miller et al. 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Although, as a whole, this species is secure with relatively large numbers and an expansive range, many small, isolated populations are threatened due to their low numbers and frequent contact with humans. These small populations tend to be found in remnant wild areas surrounded by more extensive human development. As wide-ranging omnivores, Brown Bears are attracted to areas with available human-related foods; being large and somewhat aggressive, these bears may threaten life and property (often agricultural products) and may be killed as a consequence. Areas of high human use that attract bears may serve as significant mortality sinks (Nielsen et al. 2004, 2006). Additionally, bears living near humans may be killed inadvertently (e.g., vehicle or train collisions), poached for parts or products, or killed by people hunting for other species. Even small numbers of bears removed from small populations can have adverse effects on population growth (Wakkinen and Kasworm 2004); conversely, preventing just a few deaths may avert a population decline (Wiegand et al. 1998, Garshelis et al. 2005). Where Brown Bears exist in a large, contiguous population, they are sometimes hunted for sport or killed for control purposes, and rates may sometimes be unsustainable at least over the short term (Lamb et al. submitted, McLellan 2015, McLellan et al. submitted). Estimates of sustainable exploitation are hampered by the difficulty and expense of obtaining reliable estimates of population size, natural mortality, and reproductive rates. Most countries do not have the resources to develop and implement adequate monitoring programs and sustainable management plans for Brown Bears. Moreover, even with such plans in place, illegal or unreported kill may equal or exceed the legal and supposedly sustainable kill (McLellan et al. 1999, McLellan 2015). This is apparently occurring in the Russian Far East, where brown bears are poached for the commercial trade in gall bladders and paws (Seryodkin 2006). In portions of Alaska, the management goal is to reduce bear populations to encourage moose and caribou populations to expand for the benefit of hunters (Miller et al. 2011). In addition to direct removal of brown bears, many other human activities (such as agriculture, plantation forestry, highways, hydroelectric and wind power developments, and human settlements) eliminate, fragment, or erode the value of bear habitat (Proctor et al. 2005, Waller and Servheen 2005, Proctor et al. 2012). Habitat fragmentation is a serious threat that isolates population units with deleterious demographic and genetic impacts (Proctor et al. 2005, 2012). With increasing human populations, the value of brown bear habitat is being degraded in many areas (e.g., Can and Togan 2004, Nawaz 2007), while in other areas (i.e. Turkey), fewer people are now living in rural areas and conditions are improving for Brown Bears.

In Europe, four of ten populations are Critically Endangered. However, the current public interest, financial investment and management actions, seem to presently secure most populations at least for their short to midterm survival. Portions of populations in some countries are less secure due to lower local acceptance and correspondingly high human-caused mortality rates. Almost half of the populations are currently growing, but to guarantee long-term survival, all present and potential future threats must be kept in check. The key threats for bears in Europe were identified as: habitat loss due to infrastructure development, disturbance, low acceptance, poor management structures, intrinsic factors, accidental mortality and persecution. Most threats were expected to increase in the future (Kaczensky et al. 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation actions for Brown Bears vary greatly among nations and regions within nations. Large populations of this species (in Russia, Japan, Canada, Alaska, and parts of eastern and northern Europe) are legally hunted, and thus managed as a game animal. Hunting regulations, usually designed to ensure a sustainable harvest of bears, vary among areas but often involve a lottery for a limited number of permits (a quota system) and restricted season length. Most small populations are protected by national laws and international agreements, with varying degrees of enforcement. Brown Bear as a species is listed under CITES Appendix II; the populations in Bhutan (if they exist), China, and Mongolia, and those classified as the subspecies U. a .isabellinus (northern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, to Kazakhstan and Gobi desert) are listed under Appendix I. Furthermore, international trade in bears and bear products from certain populations in countries of the European Union is restricted by EU regulations. In parts of the U.S., small populations of Grizzly Bears have increased under protection of the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2005). Reintroductions, population augmentations, and connectivity management also have helped to restore numbers and geographic range in several locations in the U.S., southern Canada, and Western Europe (Clark et al. 2002, Kasworm et al. 2007). There are numerous protected areas around the world with Brown Bears, but few are large enough to support a viable population; therefore, Brown Bear conservation must be integrated with many other human land-uses (Herrero 1994, Nielsen et al. 2006). Some countries have rules or management guidelines designed to reduce human impacts on Brown Bears and their habitat, whereas in other countries bear management protocols and regulations are limited or non-existent (Servheen et al. 1999, Zedrosser et al. 2001, Kaczensky et al. 2013).

In Europe most of the bear populations are protected by the Habitat Directive (Habitat Directive;  http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:01992L0043-20070101&from=EN) which is compulsory for all EU countries. Portions of populations that fall within EU countries are not allowed to be classified as game animals.  However, Sweden, Finland, Romania, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Croatia currently use derogations under article 16 of the Habitat Directive to allow a limited kill of bears by hunters. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Norway manage bears as a game species with annual quotas as they are only limited by the Bern Convention. Trophy hunting of bears enhances local acceptance of these animals by the public in some populations (Knott et al. 2013). Nearly all European countries have some form of bear management plan, action plan or bear management strategy. However, in a number of countries these documents have not been adequately implemented.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.2. Grassland - Subarctic
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.1. Oil & gas drilling
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.3. Renewable energy
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.2. Utility & service lines
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.2. War, civil unrest & military exercises
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 3 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.3. Work & other activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.2. Supression in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.10. Large dams
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 3 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

9. Pollution -> 9.4. Garbage & solid waste
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

9. Pollution -> 9.6. Excess energy -> 9.6.3. Noise pollution
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

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Citation: Michel, S., Proctor, M., McLellan, B. & Huber, D. 2016. Ursus arctos. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41688A45034772. . Downloaded on 11 December 2016.
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