Nasua narica 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae

Scientific Name: Nasua narica (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English White-nosed Coati, Coatimundi
Spanish Cozumbo, Pizote
Nasua nelsoni Merriam, 1901
Viverra narica Linnaeus, 1766
Taxonomic Notes: Includes Nasua nelsoni (see Decker and Wozencraft 1991).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-02-18
Assessor(s): Cuarón, A.D., Helgen, K., Reid, F., Pino, J. & González-Maya, J.F.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W.
This species is listed as Least Concern because although it is locally threatened as a result of ongoing habitat loss and hunting (Glatston 1994), it is not declining at a rate to nearly sufficient to qualify even for Near Threatened. It has a wide distribution range and is present in many protected areas across its range.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:White-nosed Coati ranges from Arizona and parts of southern New Mexico in the United States through Mexico (except the Baja peninsula and central Sierra Madres) and Central America to Panama and marginally into South America in areas west of the Andes (Glatston 1994), especially in Colombia (González-Maya et al. 2011).
Countries occurrence:
Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; United States
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The numbers of this species are unknown and population estimates range from rare to common. It is rare in the United States and can be anything from common to scarce in Central America where its status is less well known, but indications are that its numbers have been greatly reduced (Janson 1981). The Mexican population has probably been severely reduced and it may even be extirpated in certain areas (Valenzuela and Ceballos 2000). Population density is greater in the tropics than in south-western United States (Gommper 1995, 1997). Both regions show year-to-year fluctuations in population sizes as a result of disease or food availability (Wright et al. 1999, Wright and Duber 2001). In Costa Rica the species is considered to be fairly common (J. González-Maya pers. comm. 2008).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:White-nosed Coati is highly adaptable but is basically a tropical woodland and open forest animal. It is rarely seen in open grassland or desert. Its distribution in Arizona and New Mexico corresponds to that of Encinal and Mexican pine-oak woodland. In the south-western U.S.A., it is found in oak woodlands or hardwood riparian canyons over 1,400-2,300 m. It is also occasionally seen in chaparral conifers. Many sightings have occurred in small isolated mountain ranges such as the Sierra Madre in Mexico and the Chiricahuas and Huachucas in the United States. It is more active by day than by night, but in Costa Rica is mostly diurnal (González-Maya et al. 2009). It runs in bands of up to 30 individuals, although 12 is more typical. Adult males are typically solitary. It searches for food both on the ground and in the forest canopy, frequently climbing to obtain fruits. It is more typically seen on the ground. It is omnivorous, typically eating fruit and invertebrates (Kaufmann 1962, Gompper 1995, Valenzuela 1998).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For information on use and trade, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): White-nosed Coati is threatened by large-scale habitat loss and in some areas hunting. In addition, the population in the United States is suspected to be losing genetic contact with populations further south, potentially leading to extirpation in the United States. It is hunted throughout its range for skin and food. In the United States it is occasionally caught in traps set for other species, killed by hunters ostensibly looking for other species, or falls victim to 'predator' control campaigns. It apparently disappeared from the Burro Mountains in New Mexico at about the same time as a Coyote Canis latrans poisoning campaign (Kaufmann et al. 1976). In addition, it is susceptible to canine distemper and rabies (Kaufmann et al. 1976).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: White-nosed Coati is classified as an endangered species in New Mexico and it is given total legal protection there. However, in Arizona, where most of the White-nosed Coatis in the United States live, they are subject to year round hunting. White-nosed Coati is listed in Appendix III of CITES by Honduras. Elsewhere in its range it does not appear to be afforded any official protection.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Decker, D.M. and Wozencraft, W.C. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of recent procyonid genera. Journal of Mammalogy 72(1): 42-55.

Glatston, A.R. 1994. The Red Panda, Olingos, Coatis, Raccoons, and their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Procyonids and Ailurids. IUCN/SSC Mustelid, Viverrid and Procyonid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Gompper, M.E. 1995. Nasua narica. Mammalian Species 487: 1-10.

Gompper, M.E. 1997. Population ecology of the White-nosed Coati, (Nasua narica) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Journal of Zoology (London) 241: 441-455.

Gompper, M.E., Stacey, P.B. and Berger, J. 1997. Conservation implications of the natural loss of lineages in wild mammals and birds. Conservation Biology 11: 857-867.

González-Maya, J.F., Rodríguez-Bolaños, A., Pinto, D. and Jiménez-Ortega, A.M. 2011. Recent confirmed records and distribution of the White-nosed Coati Nasua narica in Colombia. . Small Carnivore Conservation 45: 26-30.

González-Maya, J.F., Schipper, J. and Benítez, A. 2009. Activity patterns and community ecology of small carnivores in the Talamanca region, Costa Rica. Small Carnivore Conservation 41: 9-14.

Hass, C.C. 2002. Home-range dynamics of White-nosed Coatis in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy 83: 934-946.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Janson, T. 1981. Animales de Centro America en Peligro. Editorial Piedra Santa, Guatemala.

Kaufmann, J.H. 1962. Ecology and social behaviour of the Coati, Nasua narica, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. University of California Publications in Zoology 60: 95–222.

Kaufmann, J.H., Lanning, D.V. and Poole, S.C. 1976. Current status and distribution of the coati in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 57: 621–637.

Valenzuela, D. 1998. Natural history of the White-nosed Coati, Nasua narica, in the tropical dry forests of western Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Mastazoologica 3: 26-44.

Valenzuela, D. and Ceballos, G. 2000. Habitat selection, home range, and activity of the White-nosed Coati (Nasua narica) in a Mexican tropical dry forest. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 810-819.

Wright, S.J. and Duber, H.C. 2001. Poachers and forest fragmentation alter seed dispersal, seed survival, and seedling recruitment in the palm Attalea butyraceae. Biotropica 33(4): 583-595.

Wright, S.J., Carrasco, C., Calderon, O. and Paton, S. 1999. The El Nino Southern Oscillation variable fruit production, and famine in a tropical forest. Ecology 80: 1632-1647.

Citation: Cuarón, A.D., Helgen, K., Reid, F., Pino, J. & González-Maya, J.F. 2016. Nasua narica. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41683A45216060. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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