Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Scientific Name: Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus
Species Authority: (Werderm.) V.John & Ríha
Common Name(s):
Spanish Biznaguita
Echinocactus gielsdorfianus Werderm.
Gymnocatus gielsdorfianus (Werderm.) Backeb.
Pediocactus gielsdorfianus (Werderm.) Halda
Taxonomic Source(s): Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Accepted as a valid species by cactus specialists Anderson (2001) and Hunt (1999). Some hobbyists refer to the genus as Gymnocactus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-19
Assessor(s): Fitz Maurice, W.A., Fitz Maurice, B, Sotomayor, M., Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Smith, M. & Hernández, H.M.
Reviewer(s): Goettsch, B.K. & Superina, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
This species is listed as Critically Endangered under Criterion B, because it has an extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of approximately 10 km2, it is known from one location and is in continuing decline due to illegal collection and habitat loss.When it was first assessed, the population of Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus was thought to be very small (only about 250 plants), surveys after the assessments showed that there were 4,000 mature individuals, and an estimated 80% reduction was calculated, however, it is necessary to estimate more accurately the population size and the rate of decline in order to use other criteria to assess the status of the species.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. It grows on a slope, in an area of about 10 km², at about 1,500 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (San Luis Potosí)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:10
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species was rediscovered in 1988 near Ciudad del Maíz, San Luis Potosí, Mexico (Fitz-Maurice 1988). When the species was first assessed in 2002 an estimated population decline of at least 80% in five years was estimated and the population size was about 4,000 mature individuals. More updated information is needed to estimate the species rate of decline and population size.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:4000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species grows in xerophytic shrubland on rocky calcareous slope. It is strongly dependent on edaphic conditions. The habitat is locally classified as matorral rosetófilo (Rzedowski 1965).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is grown in cultivation as an ornamental. It is also illegally collected in the wild.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This cactus is threatened by illegal collecting in a portion of its range. The only known locality has become widely known to collectors. Habitat loss due to overgrazing by goats is also affecting this cactus.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This cactus does not occur in any protected area. It is listed on CITES Appendix I, but the laws governing imports in the countries of destination need to be enforced. It has been propagated and made widely available for 60 years, yet the demand for field collected plants remains. The species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under the category “at risk of extinction” (P; SEMARNAT 2010). 

The Cadereyta Regional Botanic Gardens has developed a universal technique to reproduce species of the genus Turbinicarpus (including Gymnocactus), with a rate of 5x/4 weeks and 95% soil adaptation success (E. Sánchez pers. comm. 2011).

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, E.F. 2001. The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland.

Bravo, H. and Sánchez-Mejorada, H. 1991. Las Cactáceas de México. Vol. 2. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D.F.

Fitz Maurice, W.A. 1988. Fieldnotes: Rediscovery of Gymnocactus gielsdorfianus. Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 59(6): 247-249.

Hunt, D. 1999. CITES Cactaceae Checklist, 2nd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS).

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Rzedowski, J. 1965. Vegetación del Estado de san Luis Potosí. Acta Científica Potosina. Editorial UASP. V (1-2).

SEMARNAT. 2010. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación.

Sotomayor, M., Arredondo, A. and Martínez, M. 2000. El Género Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae) en el estado de San Luis Potosí, México. Edit INIFAP, México.

Citation: Fitz Maurice, W.A., Fitz Maurice, B, Sotomayor, M., Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Smith, M. & Hernández, H.M. 2013. Turbinicarpus gielsdorfianus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T40975A2948525. . Downloaded on 23 April 2017.
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