Sapajus apella ssp. margaritae
|Scientific Name:||Sapajus apella ssp. margaritae|
|Species Authority:||(Hollister, 1914)|
See Sapajus apella
Cebus apella ssp. margaritae Hollister, 1914
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Lynch Alfaro, J.W., Silva, J.S. and Rylands, A.B. 2012. How different are robust and gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An argument for the use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology 74(4): 273–286.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.
Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al., 2004; Rylands et al., 2005).
Groves (2001) and Silva Jr. (2001) differ in their definitions of the forms Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cebus macrocephalus Spix, 1823. Cebus apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766), C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901, and C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939 recognized by Groves (2001) are considered junior synonyms of C. macrocephalus by Silva Jr. (2001). C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939 recognized by Groves (2001) is considered a junior synonym of C. apella by Silva Jr. (2001).
Whereas all other tufted capuchins are considered species (following Silva Jr., 2001), the taxonomic status of the Margarita island capuchin has still to be reviewed. Silva Jr. (2001) did not examine specimens from the Island of Margarita, Venezuela. Groves (2001; see also Linares 1998) supposed that it was introduced in Pre-Columbian times, and found it to be more closely allied to C. a. fatuellus than with C. a. apella. (Note that C. a. fatuellus is recognized as a valid subspecies by Groves but considered by Silva Jr (2001) to be a junior synonym of C. macrocephalus.
The species was transferred to Sapajus (Lynch Alfaro et al. 2012).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C1+2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Hoffmann, M.|
Listed as Critically Endangered as the total population of this subspecies is estimated at less than 300 individuals total, with all individuals confined to forest fragments on Margarita Island off the coast of Venezuela where no subpopulation is believed to number more than 50 mature individuals. In the face on ongoing habitat loss and hunting, it is also not unreasonable to expect a 25% decline in the population over the next 15 years.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuelan Antilles)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Citation:||Ceballos, N. 2015. Sapajus apella ssp. margaritae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T4079A70611848.Downloaded on 24 February 2017.|
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