Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cebidae

Scientific Name: Sapajus xanthosternos
Species Authority: (Wied-Neuwied, 1826)
Common Name(s):
English Buff-headed Capuchin, Golden-bellied Capuchin, Yellow-breasted Capuchin
Cebus apella subspecies xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826
Cebus xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826
Taxonomic Source(s): Lynch Alfaro, J.W., Silva, J.S. and Rylands, A.B. 2012. How different are robust and gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An argument for the use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology 74(4): 273–286.
Taxonomic Notes: Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.

Distinct genetically (Seuánez et al. 1986), Cebus xanthosternos is considered a distinct species by both Groves (2001, 2005) and Silva Jr. (2001).

The species was transferred to Sapajus (Lynch Alfaro et al. 2012).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2008-07-01
Assessor(s): Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B.
This species is listed as Critically Endangered due to a severe population decline (due to extensive habitat loss throughout its range) over the past three generations (48 years) estimated at more than 80%. It is only known to occur in several small protected areas.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2003 Critically Endangered (CR)
2000 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Sapajus xanthosternos is restricted to the Atlantic forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, north of the Rio Jequitinhonha, at least as far north as the Rio Paraguaçú near Salvador, but probably historically throughout the entire area west of, and north to, the Rio São Francisco (Coimbra-Filho et al. 1991, 1991/1992; Silva Jr, 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Brazil (Bahia)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Rylands (1982) estimated the density at Una, Bahia, at 0.72 groups/km² or 10.87 individuals/km².
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Tropical lowland and submontane forest in of the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Arboreal quadripeds, they are typically found in the lower to mid-canopy and understory (Freese and Oppenheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al, 2004; Jack 2007). Also dry, semi-deciduous forest patches in the western part of its range in Bahia.

Capuchins are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals in their diet, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top-ranking male being dominant to the top-ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Fragaszy et al. 2004). No field studies have been carried out examining particularly the behaviour and ecology of this species.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is subject to very high rates of habitat loss and is heavily hunted (Santos et al. 1987; Coimbra-Filho et al. 1992/1993).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The largest single population is currently in the Una Biological Reserve contiguous with the Una Widlife Refuge (a buffer zone around the Biological Reserve), but a further protected area will be decreed in 2008: the Serra da Lontras National Park (16,800 ha), west of the biological reserve.

Also present in Condurú State Park (8,941 ha); Lemos Maia Experimental Station (CEPLAC/CEPEC) (495 ha); and Canavieiras Experimental Station (CEPLAC/CEPEC) (500 ha).

An International Committee for the Conservation and Management for the Atlantic forest capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos and S. robustus, was created in 1992 by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (IBAMA) to promote field studies and organize a captive population from the numerous individuals kept as pets. It languished, but was resuscitated in 2002 (Santos and Lernould 1993; Baker and Kierulff 2002), and took in a Working Group created in 2003 for Barbara Brown's Titi Monkey (Callicebus barbarabrownae) and Coimbra-Filho's Titi Monkey (C. coimbrai) (both also occurring in north-eastern Brazil).

It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: Kierulff, M.C.M., Mendes, S.L. & Rylands, A.B. 2015. Sapajus xanthosternos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T4074A70615251. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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