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Papio anubis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Papio anubis
Species Authority: (Lesson, 1827)
Common Name(s):
English Olive Baboon, Anubis Baboon
Synonym(s):
Papio anubis (Pucheran & Schimper, 1856) subspecies doguera
Papio anubis Elliot, 1907 subspecies furax
Papio anubis Matschie, 1898 subspecies heuglini
Papio anubis Matschie, 1897 subspecies neumanni
Papio anubis Elliot, 1909 subspecies tessellatus
Papio anubis Dekeyser & Derivot, 1960 subspecies tibestianus
Papio hamadryas subspecies anubis (Lesson, 1827)
Taxonomic Notes: Previously treated as a subspecies of Papio hamadryas, but now generally raised to specific level (Kingdon 1997; Groves 2001, 2005; Grubb et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern as this species is very widespread and abundant and although persecuted as a crop raider there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a range-wide population decline.
History:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This is the most extensively distributed of the baboons, ranging throughout the Sahelian woodland and forest-mosaic habitats from southern Mauritania and Mali to the Sudan and southwards to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania. Outlying populations inhabit the Tibesti and Air massifs in the Sahara. In East Africa, the distribution is actively changing. Wherever the range of this species encounters that of other species there are hybrid zones and a strong implication that it is a species which is still in a phase of active expansion. For example, it forms a narrow hybrid zone with P. hamadryas below the Awash Falls and elsewhere in northern Ethiopia, and hybridizes with P. cynocephalus in the eastern part of Tsavo and Amboseli National Parks in Kenya. There is a broad clinal hybrid zone of P. anubis x P. cynocephalus between Laikipia District, just to the north-east and east of Mt. Kenya, and the Lower Tana River, Kenya coast. Baboons in this >200-km wide region are intermediate and cannot be readily allocated to either P. anubis or P. cynocephalus (baboons become increasingly “yellow-like” in their phenotypes towards the Kenya Coast; T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.). Papio anubis x P. cynocephalus are found in the Pare and Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, and elsewhere sporadically along a north-east/south-west trending line across the region. It is possible that this species has caused the ranges of neighbouring, smaller baboon species to contract. Sympatric with Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Erythrocebus patas and Cercopithecus mitis (T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.). Ranges to 2,500 m asl (T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.).
Countries:
Native:
Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The Olive Baboon is widespread and locally common in spite of vigorous trapping, shooting, and poisoning campaigns.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Inhabits Sahelian woodland and forest-mosaic habitats; able to persist in secondary and/or highly fragmented vegetation, including cultivated areas. This species is an omnivorous opportunist, and its diet varies according to region, season, and even the time of day. In open areas, it primarily feed on grasses, while in forests the principal food is fruits. Resin or gum act as buffers in dry seasons and locusts provide the occasional glut. As a result of this variable feeding strategy, there are differences in social organization and behaviour. Males may form associations called 'cabals' which can show co-operation or have elements of hierarchy.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the long term, the Olive Baboon is probably excluded from closed forests by competition and disease. Is actively persecuted in places as a pest species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed under Appendix II of CITES, and as Vermin under the African Convention. Found in a number of protected areas, including Tsavo and Lake Manyara National Parks. The isolated subpopulations on Saharan massifs merit further research.

Citation: Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Papio anubis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 October 2014.
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