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Semnopithecus hector

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Semnopithecus hector
Species Authority: (Pocock, 1928)
Common Name(s):
English Tarai Gray Langur, Lesser Hill Langur, Hanuman Langur, Gray Langur, Tarai Sacred Langur
Synonym(s):
Semnopithecus entellus (Pocock, 1928) subspecies hector
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Molur, S. & Chhangani, A.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
The species is listed as Near Threatened, as there are probably not many more than 10,000 mature individuals, and it is experiencing a continuing decline. Almost qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion C2a(i).
History:
2004 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in Bhutan, northern India (Uttaranachal, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal), and Nepal. It is found in the Himalayan foothills from Rajaji National Park (Uttaranchal) in the west to near Pankhabari (southwestern Bhutan) in the east, and throughout in between (Brandon-Jones 2004).
Countries:
Native:
Bhutan; India; Nepal
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population numbers are not known. It has avery patchy distribution due to human settlements and habitat loss. A continuing decline has been observed in extent, area and quality of habitat, and inferred in locations and mature individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in a variety of habitats, such as moist deciduous forest of the Siwaliks, to oak forest in higher altitudes (A. Kumar pers. comm.). It ranges from 150 m to 1,600 m in elevation (Molur et al. 2003). It is arboreal, mainly terrestrial, diurnal, folivorous, and occurs in multi-male multi-female groups (Molur et al. 2003). It has been observed feeding in orchards and crop fields outside of Rajaji National Park (A. Chhangani pers. comm.).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Molur et al. (2003) list the following threats: mining, firewood and charcoal collection and production, timber collection, and land distribution (resettlement) for landless people. Loss of habitat, urbanization, and electrocution by power lines are other threats identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and the Nepal National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973) lists it as a common animal (Molur et al. 2003). Occurrence in protected areas and in captivity are difficult to determine owing to taxonomic uncertainty (M. Richardson pers. comm.), though it is known to occur in Rajaji National Park and Valmiki Sanctuary (A. Chhangani pers. comm.).

Molur et al. (2003) list the following areas in need of research: taxonomy, life history, survey studies, and limiting factor research. The following management actions are needed: habitat management, wild population management, monitoring, and public education.

Citation: Molur, S. & Chhangani, A. 2008. Semnopithecus hector. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 December 2014.
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