Pygathrix nigripes

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Pygathrix nigripes
Species Authority: (Milne-Edwards, 1871)
Common Name(s):
English Black-shanked Douc Langur, Black-shanked Douc, Black-shanked Douc Monkey
Synonym(s):
Pygathrix moi (Kloss, 1926)
Taxonomic Notes: The species hybridizes with the Red-shanked Douc Langur, Pygathrix nemaeus, where their distributions meet in Viet Nam.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Rawson, B., Lippold, L., Timmins, R., Ngoc Thanh, V. & Manh Ha, N.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered as this species is believed to have undergone a decline of more than 50% in the last three generations (30-36 years, based on a generation length of 10-12 years), due to forest loss and hunting.
History:
2000 Endangered
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is found in north-eastern Cambodia and southern Viet Nam. Although once thought to be rare with a limited distribution, recent fieldwork has demonstrated that populations of this species are quite widespread (Lippold 1995). In Cambodia, they are found only east of the Mekong with an unknown northerly extent, although it provisionally occurs sympatrically with Pygathrix nemaeus in Voensei district, Ratanakiri (B. Rawson pers. comm.). The diversity and species identities of populations found in northernmost Cambodia, specifically Virachey National Park, is unknown. The presence of this species in Lao PDR has never been confirmed (Nadleret al. 2003). In southern Viet Nam, this species has a fragmented distribution extending from Sa Tay district (Kon Tum Province) in the north to just south of Cat Tien National Park in the south.
Countries:
Native:
Cambodia; Viet Nam
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The largest known population exists in Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Mondulkiri province, Cambodia, where distance estimates provide a population estimate of approximately 42,000 individuals (95% confidence interval of 27,309 – 66,460) (Pollard et al. 2007). The densities found in Seima are probably close to carrying capacity for the species in such habitat. The largest population in Viet Nam may be in Nui Chua National Park (Ninh Thuan Province), which is estimated at 500-700 individuals (Hoang Minh Duc and Ly Ngoc Sam 2005). The only other known population estimate comes from the Nam Cat Tien sector of Cat Tien NP (Dong Nai, Binh Phuoc and Lam Dong Provinces) and is estimated at 109 individuals (Phan Duy Thuc et al. 2005). In southern Viet Nam, this species survives in a large number of small, isolated forest fragments, in comparison with the situation with the red-shanked doucs in the north, where the species is not able to persist in small forest fragments.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: These animals are predominantly arboreal but may occasionally come to the ground. They are found in evergreen, semi-evergreen and semi-evergreen-mixed deciduous forest mosaics, as well as in coastal dry forest. It seems that species of this genus can adapt to relatively heavily disturbed forest (Nadler et al. 2003). Diet is apparently variable by site, being mainly composed of leaves with differing levels of supplementation with seeds, fruits and flowers (Hoang Minh Duc and Baxter 2006; Rawson 2006). Behavioral characteristics of this species make it easy to hunt (Nadler et al. 2003).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting is currently the major threat to this species (Nadler et al. 2003). It is most often hunted for traditional “medicine”, mainly from people coming from the north of Viet Nam where hunting of doucs for this purpose is more common; in the southern part of Viet Nam, hunting is primarily for the pet trade.

Destruction of its natural habitat is also a threat to this species; a large portion in the centre and south of Viet Nam suffered from massive wartime damage, and the post-war human demographic explosion and extensive logging for coffee, rubber, and cashew plantations have reduced its natural habitat. Most forest at lowland elevations has been cleared and little forest remains undisturbed (Nadler et al. 2003). The translocation of some 3 million people from the north of Viet Nam to the central highlands is likely to exacerbate rates of habitat loss through the Viet Namese range of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix I, as well as under Appendix 1B of Decree 32 (2006) in Viet Nam and is protected under The Law on Forestry NS/RKM/0802/016, article 49, identified as Pygathrix nemaeus in Prakas 020 PR.MAFF in Cambodia.

It is known to occur in several protected areas: Mondulkiri Protection Forest, Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Snuol Wildlife Sanctuary, Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary (Cambodia); Bu Gia Map National Park, Cat Tien National Park, Kon Kai Kinh National Park, Kong Cha Rang Nature Reserve, Mom Ray Nature Reserve, Nui Chua National Park (Viet Nam) (Pollard et al. 2007; BirdLife unpubl. data; Timmins and Ou Rattanak 2001; Walston et al. 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). A recommended action for the conservation of this species in Viet Nam is the expansion Bu Gia Map National Park to include all unprotected contiguous forests, particularly since this is adjacent to a protected area network containing the largest population of black-shanked doucs in neighboring Cambodia. Additional survey work is also required to identify key populations.

Bibliography [top]

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Hoang Minh Duc and Baxter, G. S. 2006. Feeding Ecology of the Black-shanked Douc Langur in Nui Chua National Park and Phuoc Binh Nature Reserve. International Journal of Primatology 27(1).

Lippold, L. 1995. Distribution and Conservation Status of Douc Langurs. Asian Primates 4: 4-6.

Lippold, L. K. and Vu Ngoc Thanh. 1998. Primate Conservation in Vietnam. In: N. G. Jablonski (ed.), The Natural History of the Doucs and Snub-nosed Monkeys, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore.

Nadler, T., Momberg, F., Nguyen Xuan Dang and Lormée, N. 2003. Vietnam Primate Conservation Status Review 2002. Part 2: Leaf Monkeys. Fauna and Flora International- Vietnam Program and Frankfurt Zoological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Nadler, T., Streicher, U. and Ha Thang Long. 2004. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Haki Publishing, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Phan Duy Thuc, Covert, H. H., Polet, G., Becker, I. and Tran Van Mui. 2005. New Survey Data on Pygathrix nigripes, the Black-shanked Douc Langur, from Cat Tien National Park, Viet Nam. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 40: 166.

Pollard, E., Clements, T., Nut Meng Hor, Sok Ko and Rawson, B. 2007. Status and Conservation of Globally Threatened Primates in the Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Cambodia. Wildlife Conservation Society, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Rawson, B. 2006. Activity budgets in the black-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix nigripes). International Journal of Primatology 27(307).

Timmins, R. J. and Ou Rattanak. 2001. The importance of Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent areas for the conservation of tigers and other biodiversity. WWF Conservation Program, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Walston, J., Davidson, P. and Men, S. 2001. A Wildlife Survey in Southern Mondulkiri Province Cambodia. Wildlife Conservation Society, Cambodia Program, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Walston, J. L. 2001. Biodiversity, the life of Cambodia – Cambodian biodiversity status report 2001. In: J. D. Smith (ed.), Kangaroo-rats and other mammals of Cambodia, pp. 135-152. Cambodia Biodiversity Enabling Activity, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.


Citation: Rawson, B., Lippold, L., Timmins, R., Ngoc Thanh, V. & Manh Ha, N. 2008. Pygathrix nigripes. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2014.
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