Toussaintia orientalis 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Magnoliales Annonaceae

Scientific Name: Toussaintia orientalis
Species Authority: Verdc.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2006-03-02
Assessor(s): Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests CEPF Plant Assessment Project
Reviewer(s): Beentje, H., Gereau, R., Kabuye, C., Kalema, J., Luke, Q., Lyaruu, H., Maunder, M., Mwachala, G., Ndangalasi, H., Njau, F. & Schatz, G. (East African Plants Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species has an extent of occurrence of only about 540 kmĀ², is severely fragmented and there is continuing decline because of forest loss and deterioration. It has probably gone extinct in Kenya and may have been lost from places in Tanzania because of human activities.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Indeterminate (I)
1998 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Known only from one location in Kenya (Mangea), now probably destroyed. In Tanzania, known from several localities along the coast and further inland. The Pugu subpopulation could be severely reduced.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Possibly extinct:
Kenya
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:540
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:5-6
Lower elevation limit (metres):140
Upper elevation limit (metres):610
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Mangea was only known from one plant, but at some sites in Tanzania, it is abundant.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A straggling small tree or shrub found in dry evergreen lowland forest and also dry bushland.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): At Mangea most if not all of the forest has gone as a result of agricultural expansion, at Ifakara there is also intensive agriculture so that locality has probably also gone. Pugu Forest Reserve has also been badly impacted by human activities. Other forest reserves where it occurs are better protected.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Recorded from Saadani National Park (Zaraninge Forest), Banda and Kichi Hills Forest Reserves.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Verdcourt, B. 1971. Annonaceae. In: C.E. Milne-Redhead and R.M. Polhill (eds), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations, London.


Citation: Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests CEPF Plant Assessment Project. 2009. Toussaintia orientalis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T32860A9729455. . Downloaded on 12 February 2016.
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