Incilius periglenes 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Incilius periglenes
Species Authority: (Savage, 1967)
Common Name(s):
English Golden Toad, Monte Verde Toad, Monte Verde Golden Toad, Alajuela Toad, Orange Toad
Spanish Sapo Dorado
Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Savage, J., Pounds, J. & Bolaños, F.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Extinct because it has not been recorded since 1989, and extensive searches in the appropriate habitat, during the appropriate season within the known range, have failed to locate this species.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Extinct (EX)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Endangered (E)
1990 Endangered (E)
1988 Endangered (E)
1986 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species was known only from the Reserva Biológica Monteverde, Costa Rica, at elevations of 1,500-1,620m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Costa Rica
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Formerly a common species, no specimen has been seen since 1989. It last bred in normal numbers in 1987, and its breeding sites were well known. In 1988, only eight males and two females could be located. In 1989, a single male was found, and was the last record of the species. Extensive searches since this time have failed to produce any more records (as of August, 2007).
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It lived in cloud and elfin forest, and was recorded breeding in temporary pools at the beginning of the rainy season.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its restricted range, global warming, chytridiomycosis and airborne pollution probably contributed to this species' extinction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its entire range was protected by the Reserva Biológica Monteverde.
It is listed on CITES Appendix I (as Bufo periglenes).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.5. Air-borne pollutants -> 9.5.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.5. Other impacts
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

Bibliography [top]

Crump, M.L. 1989. Life history consequences of feeding versus non-feeding in a facultatively non-feeding toad larva. Oecologia: 486-489.

Crump, M.L., Hensley, F.R. and Clark, K.L. 1992. Apparent decline of the golden toad: Underground or extinct? Copeia: 413-420.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jacobson, S.K. and Vandenberg, J.J. 1991. Reproductive ecology of the endangered golden toad (Bufo periglenes). Journal of Herpetology: 321-327.

Pounds, J.A. and Crump, M.L. 1994. Amphibian declines and climate disturbance: The case of the golden toad and the harlequin frog. Conservation Biology: 72-85.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L. and Campbell, J.H. 1999. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature: 611-615.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. 1997. Tests of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conservation Biology 11: 1307-1322.

Savage, J.M. 1966. An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical: 153-167.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Citation: Savage, J., Pounds, J. & Bolaños, F. 2008. Incilius periglenes. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T3172A9654595. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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