Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Incilius periglenes
Species Authority: (Savage, 1967)
Common Name(s):
English Golden Toad, Monte Verde Toad, Monte Verde Golden Toad, Alajuela Toad, Orange Toad
Spanish Sapo Dorado
Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Savage, J., Pounds, J. & Bolaños, F.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.
Listed as Extinct because it has not been recorded since 1989, and extensive searches in the appropriate habitat, during the appropriate season within the known range, have failed to locate this species.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Extinct (EX)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Endangered (E)
1990 Endangered (E)
1988 Endangered (E)
1986 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species was known only from the Reserva Biológica Monteverde, Costa Rica, at elevations of 1,500-1,620m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Costa Rica
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Formerly a common species, no specimen has been seen since 1989. It last bred in normal numbers in 1987, and its breeding sites were well known. In 1988, only eight males and two females could be located. In 1989, a single male was found, and was the last record of the species. Extensive searches since this time have failed to produce any more records (as of August, 2007).
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lived in cloud and elfin forest, and was recorded breeding in temporary pools at the beginning of the rainy season.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its restricted range, global warming, chytridiomycosis and airborne pollution probably contributed to this species' extinction.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its entire range was protected by the Reserva Biológica Monteverde.
It is listed on CITES Appendix I (as Bufo periglenes).

Citation: Savage, J., Pounds, J. & Bolaños, F. 2008. Incilius periglenes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T3172A9654595. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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