Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani
Species Authority: (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Coode & Cullen
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Kazdagi Fir, Trojan Fir
Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Mattif.
Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach ssp. bornmuelleriana (Mattf.) Silba
Abies pectinata Gilib. var. equi-trojani Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: In Turkey this taxon is treated as a distinct species (Abies equitrojani Asch. & Sint. ex Bois.) that is endemic to a single location on Kas Daghi (Mt Ida) in Balikesir while the subpopulation at Ulu Dagh is treated as a separate species - Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. On the IUCN Red List, this second taxon is treated as conspecific with Abies nordmanniana ssp. equitrojani.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-05-10
Assessor(s): Knees, S. & Gardner, M.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.

The total area of occupancy (AOO) for Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani is estimated to be ca 164 km2. Although there are no specific figures for the Abies forests in Ulu-Dagh National Park (Mt. Olympus), the park covers an area of 128 km2 and this figure is used as an estimate. The AOO of Kaz-Daghi is 36 km2 (Kaya 2008). There are numerous documented threats to the Kaz-Daghi subpopulation including loss of mature individuals due to local logging, acid rain and degradation to the habitat due to recreational activities and fire (Özel and Simser 2009, Satil 2009). Consequently this taxon is assessed as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This subspecies is endemic to Turkey. It is found in northwest and western Anatolia near to the Aegean Sea where it occurs in two disjunct locations: Balikesir; Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida .), Bursa; Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus of Bithynia). The AOO of Kaz-Daghi is 36 km2 comprising a number of small isolated localities ranging in size from 1.2 to 24 km2 (Kaya 2008). The AOO of the Mt Olympus location is no more than the 128 km2 area of the Ulu-Dagh National Park. 
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:164Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):750
Upper elevation limit (metres):1450
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A fragmented population, the most disjunct being the western subpopulation in the Kaz Dagi Mountains on Mt. Ida which occurs close to the Aegean Sea. The two subpopulations are ca 250 km apart

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Grows in mixed forests with Quercus spp., Pinus nigra and Fagus orientalis at an altitudinal range of between 750-1,450 m. on north-facing slopes (Kay, 2005) or in pure stands (Özel and Simsar 2009).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Important forestry tree and valued for its light, non-resinous wood; it is widely planted in the Black Sea Area (Ata 1989). There is a 84.5 ha seed stand for the species established by Turkish Forest Trees and Seed Improvement Research Directorate (FTSIRD) for high quality seed regeneration programmes (Kaya et al. 1997).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The Mt. Ida subpopulation has suffered from illegal logging by local villagers (Özel and Simser 2009). There is also degradation of the habitat caused by the density of visitor numbers to the National Park, especially as a result of the annual Sarikiz Festival which is held on the summit in August; the negative effects are caused through a lack of suitable facilities for large numbers of visitors (Satil 2009). Sulphur Dioxide (S02) from a nearby power plant is also causing noticeable damage; acid rain is retarding growth of the Abies and in extreme cases it is causing the death of the forest (Satil 2009). Fire is also another serious threat to this subpopulation. Although there is no documented evidence of damage to the Mt. Olympus location, it is highly likely that there will be a degree of habitat degradation as a result of high visitor numbers; the summit of the mountain is easily accessible by vehicle.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The smaller locations are afforded protection  in the Kazadagi National Park (Kaya et al. 1997) and the Ulu-Dagh National Park. It is included in the priority species list to be conserved in the National Plan for in-situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey (Kaya et al. 1997). Gene Management Zones (GMZ) have been established for  Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani (Ozturk 2010)

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):60
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Yes
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.5. Air-borne pollutants -> 9.5.1. Acid rain
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Ata, C. 1989. Silvicultural characteristics of Abies equi-trojani Aschers-Sinten and growth relationships between Pinus nigra Arnold var. pallasiana Endl. and Abies equi-trojani in mixed natural forests of Turkey. Forestry 62(3): 285-296.

Cicek, F.F. 2000. Genetic variation in adaptive seedling traits of natural populations of Abies equi-trojani Aschers. et Sint. from Kazdagl. Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University.

Cicek, F.F., Kaya, K., Cengell, B.N. and Velioglu, E. 2005. Genetic structure of four Kazdagi Fir (Abies equitrojani Ascherson et Sinten) populations in Kazdagi, Turkey as assessed by adaptive seedling traits. Forest Genetics 12(1): 45-56.

Farjon, A. and Page, C.N. (compilers) 1999. Conifers. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gemici, Y., Secmeno, O., Gork, G., Acar, I. and Ozel, N. 1998. Plant Diversity on Kazdaglart (Mt. Ida). In: N. Zencirci, Z. Kaya, Y. Anikster and W.T. Adanis (eds), Proceedings of the International Syniposium of in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity, pp. 281-288. Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Turkey.

Gulbaba, G.G., Veliglu, E., Ozer, A.S., Dogan, B., Doerksena, H. and Adams, W.T. 1998. Population genetic structure of Kazdagi fir (Abies equi-trojani Aschers et Sint.), a narrow endemic to Turkey: Iniplications for in situ conservation. In: N. Zencirci, Z. Kaya, Y. Anikstel and W.T. Adanis (eds), Proceedings of the International Symposium of in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity, pp. 271-280. Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Turkey.

Güner, A. and Zielinski, J. 1996. The conservation status of Turkish woody flora. In: D.R. Hunt (ed.) Temperate trees under threat, pp.12. Proceedings of an International Dendrological Society Symposium on the conservation status of temperate trees, 30 Sept.-1 Oct. 1994, University of Bonn, Bonn.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Kaya, Z., Kün, E. and Güner, A. 1997. National Plan for in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey. The Ministry of Environment, The Republic of Turkey, Ankara, 125 p., Ankara.

Özel H.B. and Simsar, M. 2009. Stand dynamics of Kazdagi fir (Abies equi-trojani Ascher et Sinten) natural forests in Turkey. Scientific Research and Essay 4(12): 1478-1486.

Ozturk, M., Gucel, S., Kucuk, M. and Sakcali, S. 2010. Forest diversity, climate change and forest fires in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology 31: 1-9.

Satil, F. 2009. Threatening factors on plant diversity of Kazdagi (Ida Mountain) National Park in Turkey and suggestions for conservation. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 23(2): 208-211.

Citation: Knees, S. & Gardner, M. 2011. Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T31325A9626365. . Downloaded on 19 January 2017.
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