Martes foina


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Martes foina
Species Authority: (Erxleben, 1777)
Common Name(s):
English Stone Marten, Beech Marten
French Fouine
Spanish Garduña
Taxonomic Notes: Some of the island populations are taxonomically quite distinct, although the significance of this is not yet clear (see Krystufek 2004a, 2004b). Once the taxonomy is resolved this species may need to be reassessed.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Tikhonov, A., Cavallini, P., Maran, T., Krantz, A., Herrero, J., Giannatos, G., Stubbe, M., Libois, R., Fernandes, M., Yonzon, P., Choudhury, A., Abramov, A. & Wozencraft C.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, its large population, its occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The stone marten is widespread, occurring throughout much of Europe and central Asia. It is found from Spain and Portugal in the west, through central and southern Europe, the Middle East, and central Asia, extending as far east as the Altai and Tien Shan mountains and northwest China. In Europe, it is absent from the United Kingdom, the Scandinavian peninsula, Finland, the northern Baltic, Ireland and northern European Russia. At the end of 20th century the species extended to the north and east in European Russia, as far as the Moscow Province in the north and across the Volga River in the east (Abramov et al., 2006). The species occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan. It was recently found in northern Myanmar (Rabinowitz and Khaing 1998). The species occurs from sea level to 3,400 m in Kazakhstan, up to 3,600 m in Himalaya and 4,200 m in Nepal. In India, it occurs above 1500 m. The species was introduced to Ibiza, Balaeric Islands (Spain) but it failed. It was also introduced to Wisconsin, U.S.A. (Long, 1995).
Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nepal; Netherlands; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
United States (Georgia - Native)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is common in at least parts of its range (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Populations in western and central Europe have increased since the 1960s and 1970s. The beech marten is recolonizing areas in the Netherlands from which it had disappeared.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The stone marten prefers more open areas than other martens. (Sachhi and Meriggi, 1995). Its habitat preferences vary in different parts of its range. It is typically found in deciduous forest, forest edge, and open rocky hillsides (sometimes above the tree line). However, in Switzerland, north-east France, and southern Germany, it is very common in suburban and urban areas, often building its nest in house attics, outhouses, barns, garages, or even car engine spaces. In some areas they are common in towns and rare in woods. Commensal beech martens may cause damage to roofs, insulation, and electrical wiring and pipes in houses and cars.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is hunted for its fur in India and Russia. The species is also hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is sometimes persecuted as a pest. Rabies may be a problem in some portions of the species range. In China, it is Key Listed at level 2. The species is hunted for its fur in India and Russia. The species is also hunted for food.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention. It occurs in many protected areas. The Indian population is listed in Appendix III of CITES, as Martes foina intremedia (A. Abramov pers. comm. 2006). Further legislation and enforcement of existing legislation regarding hunting. Research to establish a sustainable harvest level is also recommended.

Bibliography [top]

Abramov, A. V., Kruskop, S. V. and Lissovsky, A. A. 2006. Distribution of the stone marten Martes foina (Carnivora, Mustelidae) in the European part of Russia. Russian Journal of Theriology 5(1): 37-41.

Kryštufek, B. 2004. The Cretan Stone Marten Martes foina bunites. Small Carnivore Conservation 30: 2-4.

Kryštufek, B. 2004. The Stone Marten Martes foina milleri on the Island of Rhodes. Small Carnivore Conservation 31: 6-8.

Long, C. A. 1995. Stone marten (Martes foina) in southeast Wisconsin, U.S.A. Small Carnivore Conservation 13: 14.

Rabinowitz, A. and Tun Khaing, S. 1998. Status of selected mammal species in North Myanmar. Oryx 32(2): 201-208.

Citation: Tikhonov, A., Cavallini, P., Maran, T., Krantz, A., Herrero, J., Giannatos, G., Stubbe, M., Libois, R., Fernandes, M., Yonzon, P., Choudhury, A., Abramov, A. & Wozencraft C. 2008. Martes foina. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 30 March 2015.
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