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Avahi laniger

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES INDRIIDAE

Scientific Name: Avahi laniger
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1788)
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Woolly Lemur, Woolly Indris, Gmelin's Woolly Lemur, Eastern Avahi
French Avahi Laineux, Maki À Bourre
Spanish Indri Lanudo
Taxonomic Notes: Generic synonym = Lichanotus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

A predicted population reduction of ≥30% in the future over a three generation time period of 30 years is based on a continuing and projected decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, mainly caused by slash-and-burn agriculture and logging, in addition to ongoing and projected exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.

History:
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)
1988 Insufficiently Known (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Insufficiently Known (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in north east Madagascar. Prior to the recent taxonomic splitting of this species, it was thought to range almost the entire length of Madagascar’s eastern rainforests, from the Tolagnaro (= Fort-Dauphin) region in the extreme south to perhaps as far as the Ankarana Massif in the extreme north. With the description of a number of new species within this large area, it is now thought to range from the Bemarivo River in the north to the Nesivolo / Mangoro in the south (E.E. Louis Jr. pers. obs.).



Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss and hunting. In Ambatovy, population density is estimated to be 50-60 individuals/km². This species appears to survive relatively well in small areas of 2-3 ha. In Ambodiriana Manopana, population density is estimated to be 30-50 individuals/km². At the Analamazaotra Special Reserve, estimates of densities reach 72-100 individuals/km² (Ganzhorn 1988).



Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in tropical moist lowland and montane forests, as well as secondary forest formations. Population densities appear higher in secondary growth and disturbed habitats. During the day, they typically sleep in clumps of dense foliage, sometimes fairly close to the ground, where group members huddle together (Mittermeier et al. 2008 and references therein). The diet consists of mainly immature leaves and buds, supplemented with fruits, flowers, and bark. Nocturnal and arboreal. Groups of up to five have been reported, and home ranges of 1–2 ha are aggressively defended. Small group size indicates monogamous groupings, but longitudinal and genetic data are needed to better understand this social behavior. Single births take place in August and September (Mittermeier et al. 2008 and references therein).



Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Localized declines are no doubt taking place from habitat destruction due to logging and slash-and-burn agriculture. The species is sometimes captured opportunistically at its daytime sleeping sites or in traps baited with fruit, and in some places is actively pursued by hunters with slingshots (Mananara-Nord) or spears (Makira). Indeed, recent data indicates that there has been a considerable upsurge in the hunting of this species. An estimated 2,500-3,000 individuals are hunted per year in Makira. Hunting of this species is occasionally fady (especially if a mother has a single young) (C. Golden pers. comm.).  

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is reported to occur in four national parks (Mananara-Nord, Mantadia, Marojejy, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Betampona and Zahamena) and five special reserves (Ambatovaky, Ambohitantely, Analamazaotra, Anjanaharibe-Sud, and Mangerivola), along with the soon-to-be protected forests of Makira. The taxonomic status of the Avahi species in Ankarana and also in the Kalambatritra Special Reserve requires further investigation.

Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Avahi laniger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2014.
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