Acrocephalus caffer 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Sylviidae

Scientific Name: Acrocephalus caffer
Species Authority: (Sparrman, 1786)
Common Name(s):
English Tahiti Reed-warbler, Tahiti Reed Warbler, Tahiti Reed-Warbler
Identification information: 19 cm. Large, long-billed warbler with two colour-morphs. Most birds pale yellow, mottled with brownish-olive above. Dark morph all dark olive-brown. Similar spp. Tahiti Monarch Pomarea nigra blacker than dark morph, with pale blue, short bill; occur in different valleys. Voice Call a harsh churrr. Song a lively and varied series of whistles, churrs, and warbles; often long sustained. Hints Shy, skulking bird most easily located by its voice.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Gouni, A., Raust, P. & Blainvillain, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., O'Brien, M., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Derhé, M.
Justification:
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small population and range, and it is now restricted to a single island where it is rare, localised and declining owing to disturbance and habitat degradation. Measures are urgently needed to regulate access to important breeding valleys and the collection of bamboo to slow its rate of decline.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Acrocephalus caffer is found on Tahiti in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, having probably formerly occupied all the high islands in the group. The subspecies longirostris is probably extinct on Moorea although there have been at least two unconfirmed reports since 2000 (A. Gouni in litt. 2007, Cibois et al. 2008, A. Gouni in litt. 2011). The subspecies musae and garretti both went extinct on the islands of Raiatea and Huahine respectively, in the late 1800s or early 1900s. The species is absent from the Tahiti peninsula (Tahiti Iti) and has been rare and local throughout the 20th century, being recorded in six valleys during the period 1920-1923 (out of 14 visited) and 12 during 1986-1991 (out of 39), and estimated to number a few hundred individuals (Monnet et al. 1993b).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
French Polynesia
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:270
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number a few hundred individuals by Monnet et al. (1993b). It is placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals, equating to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is declining at a slow to moderate rate, owing to a number of factors, most important perhaps is the unregulated collection of bamboo.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:250-999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in bamboo thickets and second growth forests in river valleys and hillsides to 1,700 m. It feeds on insects but also takes lizards, small fish, crayfish, snails and nectar (Pratt et al. 1987, Thibault 1988). It is thought to breed exclusively in bamboo thickets (P. Raust in litt. 2007).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.4
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The development of hydro-electricity opened up the interior of the island with new roads and tracks (P. Raust in litt. 2007). This increased access has lead to a considerable increase in the exploitation of bamboo as well as invasion by the neotropical weed Miconia and an increase in tourists in four-wheel drive vehicles. These factors have modified the habitat considerably, and most worryingly have caused a loss of breeding habitat, as well as causing disturbance to birds (P. Raust in litt. 1999, P. Raust in litt. 2007). The introduction of feral cats Felis catus, rats Rattus spp. (A. Gouni in litt. 2012) and many alien bird species, including the aggressive Common Myna Acridotheres tristis, may also contribute to its rarity (Thibault 1988, Seitre and Seitre 1991).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Surveys are ongoing in the Papenoo Valley (C. Blainvillain verbally 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Resurvey the species in order to establish trends (C. Blainvillain verbally 2000). Control the exploitation of bamboo. Monitor numbers in easily accessible key sites. Investigate the severity of the threat caused by A. tristis and other predators. Consider control of predators at sites known to be important to the species. Protect important sites from habitat clearance through road and dam building and degradation by off-road vehicles.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:No
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.4. Marine & freshwater aquaculture -> 2.4.3. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Felis catus)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Rattus rattus)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Miconia calvescens)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Pycnonotus cafer)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Acridotheres tristis)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Cibois, A.; Thibault, J.-C.; Pasquet, E. 2008. Systematics of the extinct reed warblers Acrocephalus of the Society Islands of eastern Polynesia. Ibis 150(2): 365-376.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Monnet, C.; Thibault, J.; Varney, A. 1993. Stability and changes during the twentieth century in the breeding landbirds of Tahiti (Polynesia). Bird Conservation International 3: 261-280.

Pratt, H. D.; Bruner, P. L.; Berrett, D. G. 1987. A field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Seitre, R.; Seitre, J. 1991. Causes de disparition des oiseaux terrestres de Polynésie Française. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Nouméa.

Thibault, J. -C. 1988. Menaces et conservation des oiseaux de Polynésie Française. In: Thibault, J.-C.; Guyot, I. (ed.), Livre rouge des oiseaux menacés des régions françaises d'outre-mer, pp. 87-124. Conseil International pour la Protection des Oiseaux, Saint-Cloud.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Acrocephalus caffer. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22714806A39538331. . Downloaded on 30 May 2016.
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