||Myadestes myadestinus (Stejneger, 1887)
||Kamao, Hawaiian Thrush, Kama'o
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||20 cm. Small, dull-coloured thrush. Reddish-brown above, pale grey below, breast and flanks with slightly darker mottling. Dark legs. Short, broad bill. Juvenile dark chocolate-brown above heavily spotted with buff, grey below heavily scalloped with dark brown. Similar spp. Puaiohi M. palmeri smaller with pink legs and longer, more slender bill. Introduced Melodious Laughingthrush Garrulax canorus brighter cinnamon-brown with yellow bill. Voice Song a long melodic cascade of notes including buzzy trills, gurgling whistles, and shorter notes. Calls a variety of short notes including cat-like or frog-like braack and higher pitched "police whistle". Hints Sings from exposed snags in early morning.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.
||Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Martin, R
This species formerly occurred on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, USA, but the multitude of threats in the region have driven it Extinct. The last definite record dates from 1985 and targeted searches in 1995 and 1997 yielded no confirmed reports.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Extinct (EX)
- 2008 – Extinct (EX)
- 2004 – Extinct (EX)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Myadestes myadestinus was endemic to Kaua'i in the Hawaiian Islands (USA). It was the most common of the forest birds in 1891 but, by 1928, had disappeared from the lower altitudes and became restricted to dense montane forest in the Alaka'i Wilderness Preserve (Scott et al. 1986). During 1968-1973, its population was estimated at 337 individuals (USFWS 1983) while, in 1981, an estimated 24 (±20) individuals were present (Scott et al. 1986). The last reliable sighting was in 1985, with unconfirmed reports until 1991 (Gorresen et al. 2009). The lack of confirmed detections despite numerous intensive surveys in areas formerly occupied, particularly in 1995 and 1997 (Reynolds and Snetsinger 2001, Foster et al. 2004), make it now appropriate to classify this species as Extinct (S. Fretz, R. Camp, E. VanderWerf and M. Gorresen in litt. 2003). However, it is worth noting that M. palmeri went many years without being seen, but then began to reappear in small numbers (USFWS 2003). |
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|